Investigating Motivational Factors in EFL Classroom from the Perspectives of Students at a Tertiary Context in Oman

  • Iman Al Khalidi


This study is addressing the phenomenon of motivation in EFL classroom as an essential strategy within the area of ELT. The study aimed at exploring what factors that affect students’ learning and how from the perspectives of students who are involved in the learning situation. The study drew on the paradigm of interpretivism employing its epistemology and philosophy as an underpinning stance. For gaining thick information, the researcher used the method of semi-structured interviews with the student sample. Interpretations of the student data showed that the students referred to a variety of factors that affect their motivation in the classroom. Based on the findings of data analysis, the study offers a number of implications and suggestions that are of value for teachers who are involved in the process of ELT.


Motivational factors EFL classroom Tertiary education Learning 


  1. Ames, C., & Ames, R. (Eds.). (1989). Research on motivation in education: Goals and cognitions. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Chang, L. Y. (2010). Group processes and EFL learners’ motivation: A study of group dynamics in EFL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 44(1), 129–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, J., Warden, C., & Chang, H. T. (2005). Motivators that do not motivate: The case of Chinese EFL learners and the influence of culture on motivation. TESOL Quarterly, 39(4), 609–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheng, H. F., & Dornyei, Z. (2007). The use of motivational strategies in language instruction: The case of EFL teaching in Taiwan. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 153–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clement, R., Dornyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1994). Motivation, self-confidence, and group cohesion in the foreign language classroom. Language Learning, 44(3), 417–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Crookes, G., & Schmidt, R. W. (1991). Motivation: Reopening the research agenda. Language Learning, 41(4), 469–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dornyei, Z. (1994a). Motivation and motivating in a foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 273–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dornyei, Z. (1994b). Understanding L2 motivation: On with the challenge! The Modern Language Journal, 78(4), 515–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dornyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 3(1), 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dornyei, Z. (2001). Motivational strategies in language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dornyei, Z. (2003). Attitudes, orientations and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research and applications. Language Learning, 53(1), 3–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dornyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Dornyei, Z. (2009). The L2 motivational self system. In Z. Dornyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and L2 self (pp. 9–42). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dornyei, Z. (2011). Research methods in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Dornyei, Z., & Csizer, K. (2002). Some dynamics of language attitudes and motivation: Results of a longitudinal nationwide study. Applied Linguistics, 23(4), 421–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dornyei, Z., & Otto, I. (1998). Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 4, 43–69. London: Thamas Valley University.Google Scholar
  19. Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  20. Gardner, R. C. (1999). Correlation, causation, motivation, and second language acquisition. Canadian Psychology, 41(1), 10–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gardner, R. C. (2005). Integrative motivation and second language acquisition. Paper presented at Canadian association of applied linguistics/Canadian linguistics association: Joint plenary talk.Google Scholar
  22. Gardner, R. C. (2007). Motivation and second language acquisition. Porta Linguarum, 8, 9–20 Retrieved from
  23. Gonzales, R. D. (2010). Motivational orientation in foreign language learning: The case of Filipino foreign language learners. TESOL Journal, 3, 3–28.Google Scholar
  24. Kubanyiova, M. (2006). Developing a motivational teaching practice in EFL teachers in Slovakia: Challenges of promoting teacher change in EFL contexts. TESOL-EJ, 10(2), 1–17.Google Scholar
  25. Liuoliene, A., & Metiuniene, R. (2006). Second language learning motivation. Santalka, Filologija, 14, 93–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Madrid, D. (2002). The power of the FL teachers motivational strategies. CAUCE, Num, 25, 369–422.Google Scholar
  27. Masgoret, A. M., & Gardner R. C. (2000). Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: A meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.Google Scholar
  28. Midraji, S., Jendli, A., & Sellami, A. (Eds.). (2007). Research in ELT contexts. TESOL Arabia Publications.Google Scholar
  29. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. Los Angeles: SAGE.Google Scholar
  30. Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies. New York: Newbury House Publishers.Google Scholar
  31. Oxford, R. (Ed.). (1996). Language learning motivation: Pathways to the new century. Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  32. Oxford, R., & Shearin, J. (1994). Language learning motivation: Expanding the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 12–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Punch, K. (2009). Introduction to research methods in education. Los Angeles: SAGE.Google Scholar
  34. Ruesch, A. (2009). Student and teacher receptions of motivational strategies in the foreign language classrooms (Master’s thesis). Brigham Young University.Google Scholar
  35. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, A. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definition and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Silverman, D. (1985). Qualitative methodology and sociology. Aldershot: Gower.Google Scholar
  37. Skinner, C. (2006). Educational psychology (4th ed.). New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India.Google Scholar
  38. Tremblay, P. F., & Gardner, R. C. (1995). Expanding the motivation construct in language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 79(4), 505–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ur, P. (1991). A course in language teaching: Practice and theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Yin, R. K. (2003). Applications of case study research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iman Al Khalidi
    • 1
  1. 1.Al Buraimi University CollegeAl BuraimiOman

Personalised recommendations