Variceal hemorrhage is one of the complications of cirrhosis that defines progression to the stage of decompensated cirrhosis, with a mortality as high as 40%, depending on the severity of liver disease. Therefore, it is essential to identify patients with cirrhosis at a high risk of variceal bleeding, so that prevention strategies can be implemented. In this chapter, we describe a case of a patient recently diagnosed with cirrhosis. We discuss current recommendations on screening/surveillance for esophageal varices, strategies for primary and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal hemorrhage (EVH), as well as treatment options and outcomes of EVH.
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