Liver Disease pp 155-163 | Cite as

Abnormal Liver Tests

  • Paul Y. KwoEmail author
  • Katherine Wong


The burden of chronic liver disease continues to increase in the United States. While there have been major achievements in the treatment of certain chronic liver diseases including chronic viral hepatitis, practicing clinicians routinely encounter patients with elevated liver tests. It is important for clinicians to be able to recognize liver tests that are outside the normal range and proceed with a focused evaluation that is tailored to the clinical presentation.


Abnormal liver tests Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Viral hepatitis Liver chemistries 

Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Kwo PY, Cohen SM, Lim JK. ACG clinical guideline: evaluation of abnormal liver chemistries. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017;112:18–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Udompap P, Kim D, Kim WR. Current and future burden of chronic nonmalignant liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13:2031–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Chalasani N, et al. The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2018;67:328–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    CDC guidelines on HCV screening. Accessed 30 May 2018
  5. 5.
    AASLD/IDSA Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C. 2015. Accessed 2 Mar 2015.
  6. 6.
    Dutta A, Saha C, Johnson CS, et al. Variability in the upper limit of normal for serum alanine aminotransferase levels: a statewide study. Hepatology. 2009;50:1957–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ruhl CE, Everhart JE. Elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase and mortality in the United States population. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:477–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stanford University School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA

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