Liver Disease pp 141-154 | Cite as

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Daniel B. Karb
  • Seth N. SclairEmail author


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary cancer of the liver. It generally arises in patients with underlying cirrhosis. Screening and surveillance can be used to identify HCC. Many treatment modalities exist for HCC. In this chapter, we describe a case of a cirrhotic patient found to have HCC. We discuss screening strategies, diagnostic criteria, and treatment options for HCC.


Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system Liver transplantation Resection Locoregional therapy RFA Microwave ablation (MWA) Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) Irreversible electroporation (IRE) Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) Cryoablation 

Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Bruix J, Sherman M. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma: an update. Hepatology. 2011;53(3):1020–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Forner A, Llovet JM, Bruix J. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Lancet. 2012;379:1245–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gosalia AJ, Martin P, Jones PD. Advances and future directions in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterol & Hepatol. 2017;13(7):398.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heimbach JK, Kulik LM, Finn RS, Sirlin CB, Abecassis MM, Roberts LR, et al. AASLD guidelines for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2018;67(1):358–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Khalaf N, Ying J, Mittal S, Temple S, Kanwal F, Davila J, El-Serag HB. Natural history of untreated hepatocellular carcinoma in a US cohort and the role of cancer surveillance. Clin Gastroenterol and Hepatol. 2017;15(2):273–81. e1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mazzaferro V, Regalia E, Doci R, Andreola S, Pulvirenti A, Bozzetti F, et al. Liver transplantation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(11):693–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mitchell DG, Bruix J, Sherman M, Sirlin CB. LI-RADS (liver imaging reporting and data system): summary, discussion, and consensus of the LI-RADS management working group and future directions. Hepatology. 2015;61(3):1056–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University HospitalsClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Division of Gastroenterology and Liver DiseaseUniversity Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA

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