Advertisement

Rectal Prolapse

  • Quinton Morrow Hatch
  • Eric K. Johnson
Chapter

Abstract

Rectal prolapse is a common ailment that can be very distressing to those affected. It will be encountered relatively commonly by the practicing surgeon. Often patients have suffered for years before seeking medical care due to the embarrassment associated with this condition. Disease is often associated with derangements in bowel function such as fecal incontinence or constipation. It may also be associated with other pelvic floor disorders, often warranting multidisciplinary workup. It is essential to have a basic understanding of the workup and surgical treatment of this condition due to the varied presentations and multitude of available surgical options. This chapter serves to provide that basis with an easy-to-navigate algorithm and brief narrative.

Keywords

Rectal prolapse Ventral rectopexy Resection rectopexy Suture rectopexy Perineal proctosigmoidectomy Fecal incontinence 

References

  1. 1.
    Jacobs L, Lin Y, Orkin B. The best operation for rectal prolapse. Surg Clin North Am. 1997;77:49–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Madiba T, Baig M, Wexner S. Surgical management of rectal prolapse. Arch Surg. 2005;140:63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Broden B, Snellman B. Procidentia of the rectum studied with cineradiography: a contribution to the discussion of causative mechanism. Dis Colon Rectum. 1968;11:330–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roig J, Buch E, Alo´s R, et al. Anorectal function in patients with complete rectal prolapse: differences between continent and incontinent individuals. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1998;90:794–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kuijpers H. Treatment of complete rectal prolapse: to narrow, to wrap, to suspend, to fix, to encircle, to plicate or to resect? World J Surg. 1992;16:826–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nicholls R. Rectal prolapse and the solitary ulcer syndrome. Ann Ital Chir. 1994;65:157–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yakut M, Kaymakciioglu N, Simsek A, et al. Surgical treatment of rectal prolapse: a retrospective analysis of 94 cases. Int Surg. 1998;83:53–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stein E, Stein DE. Rectal procidentia: diagnosis and management. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2006;16:189–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marceau C, Parc Y, Debroux E, et al. Complete rectal prolapse in young patients: psychiatric disease a risk factor of poor outcome. Color Dis. 2005;7:360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mellgren A, Bremmer S, Johansson C, et al. Defecography. Results of investigations in 2,816 patients. Dis Colon Rectum. 1994;37:1133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hatch Q, Steele S. Rectal prolapse and intussusception. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2013;42:837–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hiltunen K, Matikainen M, Auvinen O, et al. Clinical and manometric evaluation of anal sphincter function in patients with rectal prolapse. Am J Surg. 1986;151:489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Keighley M, Fielding J, Alexander-Williams J. Results of Marlex mesh abdominal rectopexy for rectal prolapse in 100 consecutive patients. Br J Surg. 1983;70:229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Madoff R, Mellgren A. One hundred years of rectal prolapse surgery. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim D, Tsang C, Wong W, et al. Complete rectal prolapse: evolution of management and results. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42(4):460–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ternent C, Bastawrous A, Morin N, et al. Practice parameters for the evaluation and management of constipation. Dis Colon Rectum. 2007;50:2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jorge J, Habr-Gama A, Wexner SD. Biofeedback therapy in the colon and rectal practice. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2003;28:47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khaikin M, Wexner S. Treatment strategies in obstructed defecation and fecal incontinence. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12(20):3168–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Harvey C, Halligan S, Bartram C, et al. Evacuation proctography: a prospective study of diagnostic and therapeutic effects. Radiology. 1999;211:223–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rashid Z, Basson M. Association of rectal prolapse with colorectal cancer surgery. Surgery. 1996;119:51–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deen K, Grant E, Billingham C, et al. Abdominal resection rectopexy with pelvic floor repair versus perineal rectosigmoidectomy and pelvic floor repair for full thickness rectal prolapse. Br J Surg. 1994;81(2):302–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Senapati A, Gray RG, Middleton LJ, et al. PROSPER: a randomised comparison of surgical treatments for rectal prolapse. Color Dis. 2013;15(7):858–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johansen O, Wexner S, Daniel L, et al. Perineal rectosigmoidectomy in the elderly. Dis Colon Rectum. 1993;36:767–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yoshioka K, Ogunbiyi O, Keighley M. Pouch perineal rectosigmoidectomy gives better functional results than conventional rectosigmoidectomy in elderly patients with rectal prolapse. Br J Surg. 1998;85:1525–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Consten EC, van Iersel JJ, Verheijen PM, et al. Long-term outcome after laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy: an observational study of 919 consecutive patients. Ann Surg. 2015;262(5):742–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kellokumpu I, Virozen J, Scheinin T. Laparoscopic repair of rectal prolapse: a prospective study evaluating surgical outcome and changes in symptoms and bowel function. Surg Endosc. 2000;14:634–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Quinton Morrow Hatch
    • 1
  • Eric K. Johnson
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryMadigan Army Medical CenterTacomaUSA
  2. 2.Cleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of Surgery, Division of Colorectal SurgeryHillcrest HospitalMayfield HeightsUSA

Personalised recommendations