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Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

  • Igor G. Elyash
Chapter

Abstract

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is clinically significant to surgeons and requires a coordinated team approach with a step-wise progression. The typical presentation is usually hematemesis, melena, and occasionally hematochezia in rapid bleeds. The first priority is to provide the patient with close hemodynamic monitoring and adequate resuscitation. Once the patient has been resuscitated, the next step is upper endoscopy. If a source is identified, it is treated as appropriate. Rebleeding requires repeat endoscopy, followed by surgery for failures. If no source is identified, red blood cell (RBC) scan and angiography can be used for additional workup. Surgery is reserved for unstable patients with bleeding not controlled with any other modality.

Keywords

Hematemesis Melena Hematochezia Upper gastrointestinal bleed Peptic ulcers Gastric varices Mallory-Weiss 

Suggested Reading

  1. Barkun AN, et al. International Consensus recommendations on the management of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(2):101–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brunicardi FC. Schwartz’s principles of surgery. 10th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2015.Google Scholar
  3. Cameron JL, Cameron AM. Current surgical therapy. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2014.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor G. Elyash
    • 1
  1. 1.Morristown Surgical AssociatesMorristown Medical CenterMorristownUSA

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