The diagnosis and management of ductal carcinoma in situ is constantly evolving. Ductal carcinoma in situ is considered a “preinvasive” cancer of the breast, often considered a nonobligate precursor to invasive disease. It is generally discovered on screening mammography by the presence of calcifications. Key components of the history and physical exam can aid the surgeon in determining important aspects in the care of the patient. Treatment includes surgery, in the form of lumpectomy or mastectomy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. Axillary staging is usually not necessary unless invasive disease is found. Genomic testing can aid the clinician in making decisions regarding the need for adjuvant therapy, thereby individualizing care for each patient and avoiding unnecessary morbidity.
KeywordsDuctal carcinoma in situ Evaluation Treatment Recurrence Prognosis Practical algorhythm Genomics Surgery
- 1.Laronga C, Tollin S, Turanga K. History, physical examination, and staging. In: Keurer H, editor. Keurer’s breast surgical oncology. New York: The Mc-Graw Hill Companies; 2010. p. 126–8.Google Scholar
- 2.Kato M, Simmons R. The evaluation and treatment of nipple discharge. In: Scott-Conner C, Dirbas F, editors. Breast surgical techniques and interdisciplinary management. New York: Springer; 2011. p. 179–86.Google Scholar