Nipple Discharge

  • Anjali R. Thawani
  • Lillian M. ErdahlEmail author


The diagnosis and management of ductal carcinoma in situ is constantly evolving. Ductal carcinoma in situ is considered a “preinvasive” cancer of the breast, often considered a nonobligate precursor to invasive disease. It is generally discovered on screening mammography by the presence of calcifications. Key components of the history and physical exam can aid the surgeon in determining important aspects in the care of the patient. Treatment includes surgery, in the form of lumpectomy or mastectomy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. Axillary staging is usually not necessary unless invasive disease is found. Genomic testing can aid the clinician in making decisions regarding the need for adjuvant therapy, thereby individualizing care for each patient and avoiding unnecessary morbidity.


Ductal carcinoma in situ Evaluation Treatment Recurrence Prognosis Practical algorhythm Genomics Surgery 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Surgical OncologyAMITA Health SystemElk Grove VillageUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

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