Chronic Lower Extremity Ischemia

  • Afsha Aurshina
  • Anil Hingorani


The diagnosis and clinical management of chronic limb ischemia are based on proper assessment of patient symptoms and signs as noted from the history and physical exam. Ankle-brachial index is the best initial test to confirm diagnosis of chronic ischemia. The final management strategy is based on further diagnostic/invasive tests and includes both endovascular and open revascularization options.


Chronic limb ischemia Revascularization Gangrene Arterial occlusion 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Afsha Aurshina
    • 1
  • Anil Hingorani
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Vascular SurgeryVascular Institute of New YorkBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.Division of Vascular ServicesNYU Langone Hospital-BrooklynBrooklynUSA

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