• Melissa BoltzEmail author


Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs due to the overproduction of parathyroid hormone by one or more autonomously hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands and typically causes hypercalcemia. It is the most common cause of hypercalcemia in the outpatient setting, with a majority of cases occurring in patients over age 45 years.


Hyperparathyroidism Calcium Parathyroid hormone Vitamin D Hypercalcemia Osteoporosis Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia Kidney stones Sestamibi scan Intraoperative PTH monitoring 


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    Sneider MS, Solorzano CC, Lew JI. Primary hyperparathyroidism. In: Morita SY, APB D, Zeiger MA, editors. McGraw-Hill manual endocrine surgery. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2009.Google Scholar

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryPenn State Hershey Medical CenterHersheyUSA

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