• Lukasz CzerwonkaEmail author


Management of thyroid goiter can be challenging as it often presents in older individuals where a balance between risks and benefits of surgery must be considered. Patients with toxic nodules, airway compression, concern for malignancy, significant cosmetic deformity, and persistent growth should be considered for surgery.


Toxic goiter Multinodular goiter Substernal goiter Airway compromise Radioactive iodine 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck SurgeryStony Brook University HospitalStony BrookUSA

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