Ependymal Tumors

  • César R. Lacruz
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 13)


Ependymoma and its variants account for approximately 5–9% of brain tumors in adults, 6–12% in children, and 30% in infants, being the third most common pediatric CNS tumor. Ependymal neoplasms are divided into four histologic types: ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, subependymoma, and myxopapillary ependymoma, which convey different grades of malignancy. Because total resection is the principal factor influencing outcome, the pathologist needs to consider the diagnosis of ependymoma (any grade) during intraoperative consultation. In this chapter, the cytomorphology and differential diagnosis of the four histologic types of ependymoma and their variants are discussed.


Intraoperative brain assessment Cytology Squash preparation Smear preparation Ependymoma Anaplastic ependymoma Subependymoma Myxopapillary ependymoma Ependymoma RELA fusion-positive Papillary ependymoma Tanycytic ependymoma Clear cell ependymoma Ependymal tumors Neurofibromatosis type 2 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • César R. Lacruz
    • 1
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of PathologyComplutense University School of MedicineMadridSpain
  2. 2.Professor of PathologyUniversity Hospital Extremadura, Medical SchoolBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Pathologist, Director Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration ServiceOutpatient Pathology Associates / Precision PathologySacramentoUSA

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