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Astrocytic Tumors

  • César R. Lacruz
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Chapter
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 13)

Abstract

Astrocytic tumors constitute the most numerous and heterogeneous group of gliomas, with an incidence estimated at 60% of all primary intracranial neoplasms. Because of the variety and complexity of astrocytic tumors, for their intraoperative study, it is advisable to divide them into two important groups: (1) diffuse astrocytic tumors, a group of widely infiltrative neoplasms –considered to be surgically incurable – that includes diffuse astrocytomas (grades II to IV), diffuse midline glioma, and gliomatosis cerebri, and (2) localized “nondiffuse” astrocytic tumors, a group of relatively circumscribed neoplasms – in which attempt of gross total resection is the treatment of choice – that includes pilocytic astrocytoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. Therefore, distinguishing diffuse astrocytic tumors (any type) from localized “nondiffuse” astrocytic tumors (any type) during surgery remains the main goal for the improvement of treatment planning. In this chapter, the cytomorphologic features and intraoperative differential diagnosis of all these entities are reviewed.

Keywords

Intraoperative brain assessment Cytology Squash preparation Smear preparation Astrocytic tumors Astrocytoma Infiltrating astrocytomas Circumscribed astrocytomas Diffuse astrocytoma Anaplastic astrocytoma Glioblastoma Giant cell glioblastoma Gliosarcoma Epithelioid glioblastoma Diffuse midline glioma Gliomatosis Pilocytic astrocytoma Pilomyxoid astrocytoma Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma Radiation necrosis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • César R. Lacruz
    • 1
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of PathologyComplutense University School of MedicineMadridSpain
  2. 2.Professor of PathologyUniversity Hospital Extremadura, Medical SchoolBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Pathologist, Director Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration ServiceOutpatient Pathology Associates / Precision PathologySacramentoUSA

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