Infectious, Inflammatory, and Reactive Lesions

  • César R. Lacruz
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 13)


Infectious, inflammatory, and reactive lesions involving the CNS, which form an increasing part of the diagnostic workload in many neuropathology laboratories, are often more challenging than neoplastic lesions when evaluated by frozen section. In this compromising situation, the cytologic method can be the best ally, because the characteristic features of inflammatory cells and macrophages, often obscured in frozen sections, are nicely preserved in smears. This chapter reviews the cytomorphology and differential diagnosis of CNS acute inflammatory cell-rich lesions, CNS perivascular chronic inflammatory cell-rich lesions, CNS epithelioid-cell-rich (granulomatous) lesions, CNS macrophage-rich lesions, and CNS inflammatory/infectious lesions in AIDS patients.


Intraoperative brain assessment Cytology; Squash preparation Smear preparation CNS nonneoplastic disorders CNS inflammatory lesions Brain abscess Encephalitis CNS vasculitis CNS granulomatous lesions Neurosarcoidosis Neurotuberculosis Demyelinating disorders Tumefactive demyelination Cerebral infaction CNS AIDS LMP Mycobacterial pseudotumor Toxoplasmosis Cytomegalovirus encephalitis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • César R. Lacruz
    • 1
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of PathologyComplutense University School of MedicineMadridSpain
  2. 2.Professor of PathologyUniversity Hospital Extremadura, Medical SchoolBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Pathologist, Director Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration ServiceOutpatient Pathology Associates / Precision PathologySacramentoUSA

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