Metastatic Tumors

  • César R. Lacruz
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 13)


Brain metastases from systemic malignancies are the most common CNS neoplasms, which account for approximately 30% of clinically significant CNS tumors in adults and about 2% in children. In adults, up to 85% of cases arise from five organs: the lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney, and colon. Recent advances in the management of patients with CNS metastases have made accurate diagnosis of these tumors of paramount importance. In contrast to glial tumors, smears from metastatic carcinoma show cohesive clusters of hyperchromatic cells without cytoplasmic processes. On the other hand, the background may have blood and necrotic debris but is devoid of fibrillary structures. These features, often obscured in frozen sections, are nicely revealed in smears.


Intraoperative brain assessment Cytology Squash preparation Smear preparation Metastasis Metastatic brain tumors Secondary brain tumors CNS metastasis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • César R. Lacruz
    • 1
  • Javier Saénz de Santamaría
    • 2
  • Ricardo H. Bardales
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor of PathologyComplutense University School of MedicineMadridSpain
  2. 2.Professor of PathologyUniversity Hospital Extremadura, Medical SchoolBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Pathologist, Director Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration ServiceOutpatient Pathology Associates / Precision PathologySacramentoUSA

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