Education in Global Health Radiology

  • Melissa P. CulpEmail author
  • Rebecca Stein-Wexler
  • Mai Elezaby
  • Gillian Battino
  • David J. Axelrod
  • Rose Ndumia
  • Brett Murdock


Radiologists and radiology professionals have noted the gaps in diagnostic and interventional imaging access worldwide as documented by the World Health Organization. Since global health focuses on issues that transcend national boundaries, emphasizes solutions that often require global cooperation, and is multidisciplinary, then the concept of radiology education in global health should consider this broader context of international partnership and collaboration. There are several models in place for education in the global health setting with emphasis on radiology. This chapter discusses faculty exchanges, scholarly collaboration, partnership, formal education, online education as a tool, integration of global health concepts into radiology curricula, and socially responsible collaboration. Regardless of the type of model used, educational goals and objectives should be based on initial assessment data and address the appropriate needs. Curricula should be established in partnership with all stakeholders and with consideration for ethical best practices, continuous evaluation and improvement of the program, and open communication among stakeholders.


Global health Global radiology Radiology Education 


  1. 1.
    Mollura DJ, Mazal J, Everton KL, RAD-AID Conference Writing Group. White paper report of the 2012 RAD-AID conference on international radiology for developing countries: planning the implementation of global radiology. J Am Coll Radiol. 2013;10(8):618–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lungren MP, Horvath JJ, Welling RD, Azene EM, Starikovsky A, Bashir MR, et al. Global health training in radiology residency programs. Acad Radiol. 2011;18(6):782–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization. World health statistics. Available at: Accessed 5 June 2016.
  4. 4.
    United Nations. Sustainable development goals: 17 goals to transform our world. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  5. 5.
    World Health Organization. Noncommunicable diseases and mental health. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  6. 6.
    International Atomic Energy Agency. International conference on integrated medical imaging in cardiovascular diseases. Available at: Accessed 27 Oct 2016.
  7. 7.
    Koplan JP, Bond TC, Merson MH, et al. Towards a common definition of global health. Lancet. 2009;373:1993–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cobern WW. Constructivism. J Educ Psychol Consult. 1993;4(1):105–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    James K. International education: the concept, and its relationship to intercultural education. J Res Int Educ. 2005;4(3):313–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hunter JL. Applying constructivism to nursing education in cultural competence: a course that bears repeating. J Transcult Nurs. 2008;19(4):354–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Splitter LJ. Authenticity and constructivism in education. Stud Philos Educ. 2009;28:135–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hussain S. Welcome to the journal of global radiology. J Glob Radiol. 2015;1(1):1.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    American Roentgen Ray Society. ARRS global partner:
  14. 14.
    Latour P. RSNA’s international visiting professors program evolves over three decades. Published 1 May 2017. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  15. 15.
    American Society of Radiologic Technologists. International speakers exchange award. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  16. 16.
    Journal of the American College of Radiology. Author info. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  17. 17.
    American Society of Radiologic Technologists. ASRT journal column types. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  18. 18.
    World Health Organization. About Hinari. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  19. 19.
    MedRadJournalClub. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Radiography, & Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  20. 20.
    @JACRJournal. Twitter feed of JACR. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  21. 21.
    Kelly BS, Redmond CE, Nason GJ, Healy GM, Horgan NA, Heffernan EJ. The use of twitter by radiology journals: an analysis of twitter activity and impact factor. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016;13(11):1391–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    RAD-AID International. Radiology readiness: a framework for implementing radiology in resource-limited regions. Accessed 12 June 2017.
  23. 23.
    RAD-AID International. Publications. Accessed 12 June 2017.
  24. 24.
    Aperian Global. Global mindset. Accessed 12 June 2017.
  25. 25.
    @DrTedros. For any change to succeed, staff ownership of the change agenda at all levels is a must. External support can only complement. Published 4 June 2017. Accessed 12 June 2017.
  26. 26.
    Kline AD, Harford JS, Murdock B, Culp MP. Evolution in trainee participation in global health. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018;15(1):100–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ross AB, DeStigter KK, Rielly M, Souza S, Morey GE, Nelson M, et al. A low-cost ultrasound program leads to increased antenatal clinic visits and attended deliveries at a health care clinic in rural Uganda. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e78450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Centers of education. Accessed 12 June 2017.
  29. 29.
    RAD-AID International. How we work. Accessed 12 June 2017.
  30. 30.
    Mango VL, Ha R, Nguyen B, Mema E, Kobeski J, Singh T, Khandelwal N. RAD-AID Asha Jyoti mammogram quality assessment in India: optimizing mobile radiology. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016;13(7):831–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    World Health Organization. Global health education consortium. Accessed 12 June 2017.
  32. 32.
    Kendig C, Tyson A, Young S, Mabedi C, Cairns B, Charles A. The effect of a new surgery residency program on case volume and case complexity in a sub-saharan african hospital. J Surg Educ. 2015;72(4):e94–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    RAD-AID International. RAD-AID Guyana. Accessed 12 June 2017.
  34. 34.
    Rehani B, Brown I, Dandekar S, Sarkodi B, Mwango G, Rehani M, et al. Radiology education in Africa: analysis of results from 13 African countries. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016;14(2):242–52.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Engineering World Health. BMET training. Accessed 4 Aug 2017.
  36. 36.
    World Federation of Pediatric Imaging. Curriculum Pediatric Radiology Fellowship: Department of Radiology Faculty of Medicine Addis Ababa University. Accessed 4 Aug 2017.
  37. 37.
    Image Gently. International activities/resources. Accessed 4 Aug 2017.
  38. 38.
    Image Wisely. General radiation safety. Accessed 4 Aug 2017.
  39. 39.
    American College of Radiology. eLearning Accessed 4 Aug 2017.
  40. 40.
    Radiological Society of North America. Education. Accessed 4 Aug 2017.
  41. 41.
    American Society of Radiologic Technologists. Continuing education. Accessed 4 Aug 2017.
  42. 42.
    Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists. Full length courses. Accessed 4 Aug 2017.
  43. 43.
    The Society of Radiographers. E-Learning. Accessed 4 Aug 2017.
  44. 44.
    American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Online learning center. Accessed 4 Aug 2017.
  45. 45.
    Organization WH. Health in 2015: from MDGs, Millennium Development Goals to SDGs. Sustainable Development Goals 2015:204. Accessed 19 Sept 2018.
  46. 46.
    Frenk J, Chen L, Bhutta ZA, et al. Health professionals for a new century: transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. Lancet. 2010;376(9756):1923–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Thinyane H. Are digital natives a world-wide phenomenon? An investigation into south African first year students’ use and experience with technology. Comput Educ. 2010;55:406–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Motiwalla LF. Mobile learning: a framework and evaluation. Comput Educ. 2007;49:581–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gunderman RB, Kang Y-P, Fraley RE, Williamson KB. Teaching the teachers. Radiology. 2002;222:599–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dziuban C, Moskal P, Hartman J. Higher education, blended learning, and the generations: knowledge is power: no more. In: Elements of quality online education: engaging communities. Needham: Sloan Center for Online Education; 2005.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Slanetz PJ, Kung J, Eisenberg RL. Teaching radiology in the millennial era. Acad Radiol. 2013;20:387–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Roberts DH, Newman LR, Schwartzstein RM. Twelve tips for facilitating millennials’ learning. Med Teach. 2012;34:274–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Selwyn N. Education in a digital world: global perspectives on technology and education. Abingdon: Routledge; 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Harolds J. Effective radiology teams. J Am Coll Radiol. 2005;2:151–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Twigg CA. Models for online learning. Educ Rev. 2003;38:28–38.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cobcroft RS, Towers SJ, Smith JE, Bruns A. Mobile learning in review: opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In: Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology; 2006. p. 21–30.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Anderson LW, Krathwohl DR, Bloom BS. A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: a revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Boston: Allyn & Bacon; 2001.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Coghlan A, Noakes S. Towards an understanding of the drivers of commercialization in the volunteer tourism sector. Tour Recreat Res. 2012;37(2):123–31.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hartman E, Paris CM, Blache-Cohen B. Fair trade learning: ethical standards for community-engaged international volunteer tourism. Tour Hosp Res. 2014;14(1–2):108–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dharamsi S, Osei-Twum JA, Whiteman M. Socially responsible approaches to international electives and global health outreach. Med Educ. 2011;45(5):530–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wesby M. The exploitative selfishness of volunteering abroad. Accessed 12 June 2017.
  62. 62.
    Kushner J. The voluntourist’s dilemma. Accessed 12 June 2017.
  63. 63.
    Sinclair A. Approaches to organisational culture and ethics. J Bus Ethics. 1993;12(1):63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Arino A, De La Torre J. Learning from failure: towards an evolutionary model of collaborative ventures. Organ Sci. 1998 Jun;9(3):306–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Damberger D. TED: what happens when an NGO admits failure. Published April 2011. Accessed 15 June 2017.
  66. 66.
    Sekhar A, Eisenberg RL, Yablon CM. Enhancing the resident experience with global health electives. Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198(2):W118–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hayanga AJ. Volunteerism in residency: pride and prejudice. J Am Coll Surg. 2010;210(2):253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wood MF, Lungren MP, Cinelli CM, Johnson B, Prater A, Sood S, Gerber RE. Global health imaging curriculum in radiology residency programs: the fundamentals. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014;11(10):968–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tahvildari AM, Atnafu A, Cosco D, Acosta A, Gupta D, Hudgins PA. Global health and radiology: a new paradigm for US radiology resident training. J Am Coll Radiol. 2012;9(7):516–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    The World Bank. New country classifications by income level. Published 1 July 2016. Accessed 15 June 2017.
  71. 71. ASRT launches medical relief readiness series. Published 31 Oct 31 2014. Accessed 15 June 2017.
  72. 72.
    RAD-AID International. RAD-AID Certificate of Proficiency in Global Health Radiology. Accessed 15 June 2017.
  73. 73.
    Mollura DJ, Soroosh G, Culp MPRAD-AID Conference Writing Group. 2016 RAD-AID conference on international radiology for developing countries: gaps, growth, and United Nations sustainable development goals. J Am Coll Radiol. 2017;14(6):841–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa P. Culp
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Rebecca Stein-Wexler
    • 3
  • Mai Elezaby
    • 1
  • Gillian Battino
    • 1
  • David J. Axelrod
    • 4
  • Rose Ndumia
    • 5
  • Brett Murdock
    • 6
  1. 1.RAD-AID InternationalChevy ChaseUSA
  2. 2.Department of Allied Health SciencesUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity of California, DavisSacramentoUSA
  4. 4.Northwell Health Department of Radiology, Interventional DivisionHofstra Northwell Health School of MedicineHuntingtonUSA
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyAga Khan University Hospital, NairobiNairobiKenya
  6. 6.Department of RadiologyUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations