Ulcer Healing and Prevention in Systemic Sclerosis

  • Cosimo Bruni
  • Silvia Bellando-Randone
  • Christopher P. Denton
  • Marco Matucci-Cerinic


Digital ulcers (DU) have a major clinical impact in systemic sclerosis, and treatment and prevention are two logical and effective approaches to reduce the risk of complications and DU-related morbidity. Patient education, Raynaud’s phenomenon attacks control and identifications and treatment of potential risk factors for DU development are primary features of the above-mentioned approach. When this is not sufficient, different drug with shown evidences of efficacy in preventing or healing DU can be used, such as phosphodiesterase -5 inhibitors, endothelin-1 receptors antagonists and prostacyclin analogues, usually in combination with local topical treatment. Moreover, new approaches are also available, ranging from regenerative medicine to surgical procedures.


Digital ulcers Prevention Healing Drugs Treatment Endothelin receptor antagonists Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors Prostacyclin analogues Local topical treatment Regenerative medicine 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cosimo Bruni
    • 1
  • Silvia Bellando-Randone
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christopher P. Denton
    • 4
  • Marco Matucci-Cerinic
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  3. 3.Department of Geriatric Medicine, Division of Rheumatology AOUCFlorenceItaly
  4. 4.Division of MedicineUniversity College London, Centre for Rheumatology, Royal Free HospitalLondonUK

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