Intersectionality and Public Policy: Some Lessons from Existing Models
In comparison to research practices, intersectionality is an underdeveloped concept within policy discourse and application. Because of the complexity and relative newness of this approach, policy analysis grounded within an intersectionality framework remains largely undertheorized, and methods for integrating intersectionality into policy processes are in the nascent stages. This chapter (1) defines intersectionality and demonstrates the need for this approach in public policy, (2) outlines challenges in applying intersectionality to policy making, and (3) describes and evaluates three innovative approaches to applying intersectionality to policy development and analysis.
- African American Policy Forum. (2009). A Primer on Intersectionality. New York: Columbia University. Retrieved December 15, 2009, from http://aapf.org/tool_to_speak_out/intersectionality-primer/.
- Barak, G., Leighton, P., & Flavin, J. (2007). Class, Race, Gender and Crime: The Social Realities of Justice in America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
- Bishwakarma, R., Hunt, V., & Zajicek, A. (2007). Intersectionality and Informed Policy. Manuscript.Google Scholar
- Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women. (2006). Intersectional Feminist Frameworks: An Emerging Vision. Retrieved June 15, 2007, from http://www.criaw-icref.ca.
- Center for Women’s Global Leadership. (2006). Working Group on Women and Human Rights. Retrieved January 3, 2008, from http://www.cwgl.rutgers.edu/globalcenter/policy/bkgdbrfintersec.html.
- Collins, P. H. (1990). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
- Crenshaw, K. (1995). Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics and Violence Against Women of Colour. In K. Crenshaw, N. Gotanda, G. Peller, & K. Thomas (Eds.), Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Informed the Movement (pp. 357–383). New York: New Press.Google Scholar
- Cuádraz, G. H., & Uttal, L. (1999). Intersectionality and In-depth Interviews: Methodological Strategies for Analyzing Race, Class, and Gender. Race, Gender and Class, 6, 156–186.Google Scholar
- Dunn, W. N. (1994). Public Policy Analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- EGALE Canada. (2002). EGALE Intersections Committee. Retrieved January 3, 2008, from http://www.egale.ca/index.asp?lang=E&menu=1&item=302.
- Hankivsky, O. (2007a). Gender Based Analysis and Health Policy: The Need Rethink Outdated Strategies. In M. Morrow, O. Hankivsky, & C. Varcoe (Eds.), Women’s Health in Canada: Critical Theory, Policy and Practice (pp. 143–168). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Hankivsky, O. (2007b). Gender Mainstreaming in the Canadian Context: ‘One Step Forward and Two Steps Back’. In M. Orsini & M. Smith (Eds.), Critical Policy Studies (pp. 111–136). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
- Hankivsky, O., & Cormier, R. (2009). Intersectionality: Moving Women’s Health Research and Policy Forward. Vancouver, BC: Women’s Health Research Network.Google Scholar
- Hankivsky, O., Blackwood, L., Hunt, R., Pigg, S., Morrow, M., Reid, C., et al. (2007). Gender, Diversity and Evidence Based Decision Making. Health Law in Canada, 28, 1–15.Google Scholar
- John, P. (1998). Analysing Public Policy. London: Pinter Press.Google Scholar
- Lockhart, L. L., & Danis, F. S. (2010). Domestic Violence: Intersectionality and Culturally Competent Practice. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Miller, V., VeneKlasen, L., Reilly, M., & Clark, C. (2007). Making Change Happen 3: Power: Concepts for Revisioning Power for Justice, Equality and Peace. COMM-ORG Paper 13. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from http://comm-org.wisc.edu/papers2007/miller.htm.
- Nutley, S. M. (2003a). Bridging the Policy/Research Divide: Reflections and Lessons from the UK. Keynote paper presented at the National Institute of Governance Conference, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
- Nutley, S. M. (2003b). Increasing Research Impact: Early Reflections from the ESRC Evidence Network. Working Paper 16. London: University of London.Google Scholar
- Ontario Human Rights Commission. (2001). An Intersectional Approach to Discrimination: Addressing Multiple Grounds in Human Rights Claims. Toronto, ON: Ontario Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
- Oxman-Martinez, J., Krane, J., Corgin, L., & Loisell, L. (2002). Competing Conceptions of Conjugal Violence: Insights from an Intersectional Framework. Montreal, QC: McGill University, Centre for Applied Family Studies.Google Scholar
- Parken, A., & Young, H. (2007). Integrating the Promotion of Equality and Human Rights for All. Cardiff, Wales: Towards the Commission of Equality and Human Rights. Unpublished report for the Welsh Assembly Government and Equality and Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
- Parken, A., & Young, H. (2008). Facilitating Cross-Strand Working. Unpublished report for the Welsh Assembly Government.Google Scholar
- Phillips, A. (1995). The Politics of Presence. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.Google Scholar
- Rees, T., & Parken, A. (2002). Mainstreaming Equality: The Things You Really Need to Know but Have Been Afraid to Ask. Manchester, UK: Equal Opportunities Commission.Google Scholar
- Rees, T., & Parken, A. (2003). Gender Mainstreaming in the Malta Public Service: The Gender Impact Assessment Project. Final Report to the Department for Women in Society, Ministry of Social Policy.Google Scholar
- Rönnblom, M. (2008). Policy, Power and Space: Towards an Intersectionality Methodology in Policy Analysis. Paper presented at the POWER Conference, Tampere, Finland.Google Scholar
- Rummens, J. A. (2003). Ethnic Ancestry, Culture, Identity, and Health: Using Ethnic Origin Data from the 2001 Canadian Census. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 35(1), 10–25.Google Scholar
- Sabatier, P. (1999). The Need for Better Theories. In P. Sabatier (Ed.), Theories of the Policy Process: Theoretical Lenses on Public Policy (pp. 3–17). Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
- Staunæs, D. (2003). Where Have All the Subjects Gone? Bringing Together the Concepts of Intersectionality and Subjectification. Nora, 11, 101–110.Google Scholar
- Thorvaldsdóttir, T. (2007). “Equal Opportunities for All”: Intersectionality as a Theoretical Tool to Move Equality Policies Forward. Paper presented in Reykjavík, Iceland. (Copy in possession of the author).Google Scholar
- Urbanek, D. (2009). Towards a Processual Intersectional Policy Analysis. Unpublished report for Quality in Gender + Equality Policies. Retrieved December 15, 2009, from http://www.quing.eu/files/2009/inter_urbanek.doc.
- Weber, L. (2009). Understanding Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Welsh Assembly Government. (2000). Carers’ Strategy in Wales Implementation Plan. Cardiff: Welsh Assembly Government.Google Scholar
- Wilkinson, L. (2003). Advancing a Perspective on the Intersections of Diversity: Challenges for Research and Social Policy. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 35(3), 26–38.Google Scholar