Elements of Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology

  • Oleg Novik
  • Feodor Smirnov
  • Maxim Volgin


This chapter is devoted to a description of the anatomy and physiology of the heart at the simplest level possible to facilitate understanding of our new findings in this area—namely the numerical characteristics of heart functioning that are influenced by cosmic weather (see Chap.  4)—for readers unfamiliar with the structure and functions of the heart. In instances where a more detailed analysis of the cardiovascular system is desirable, we recommend that readers study the works included in the reference list of this chapter.


Atrium Ventricle Myocardia Peacemaker Depolarization Repolarization Automaticity of the heart Purkinje cells Myocyte 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oleg Novik
    • 1
  • Feodor Smirnov
    • 1
  • Maxim Volgin
    • 1
  1. 1.IZMIRAN of the Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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