Traumatic Optic Neuropathy

  • Sharon L. Tow
  • Prem S. SubramanianEmail author


Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) occurs most in young, otherwise healthy patients and may cause severe, irreversible visual loss. The optic nerve may be injured by direct and indirect trauma. Falls and motor vehicle accidents are the primary causes of TON, and prevalence varies throughout the world, in part because of variable standards for motor vehicle and passenger safety. The precise mechanism for TON has not been established but may be a combination of primary and secondary axonal injury and ischemia. A number of medical and surgical treatments for TON have been proposed, but no standard approach exists. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms of the injury, the types of optic nerve damage that occur, and the optimal treatment strategies.


Traumatic optic neuropathy Optic nerve injury Corticosteroid therapy Optic nerve decompression Optic canal fracture Closed head injury Traumatic vision loss 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Singapore National Eye CentreSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Singapore Eye Research InstituteDuke-NUS Medical SchoolSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.National University HospitalSingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineAuroraUSA
  5. 5.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineAuroraUSA
  6. 6.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineAuroraUSA

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