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Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

  • Amanda L. RichdaleEmail author
  • Emma K. Baker
Chapter

Abstract

Children with developmental disabilities experience a high degree of sleep disturbance. Insomnia symptoms are the most commonly reported problems, though circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders may also be common. There is significant overlap between insomnia symptoms and several symptoms associated with circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs), suggesting that such disorders should be considered. A small body of literature has demonstrated that children with developmental disorders can present with circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. In particular irregular and free-running rhythms are commonly reported. Supporting the presence of CRSWDs, melatonin abnormalities have also been reported. This chapter demonstrates that CRSWDs may be common in children with developmental disorders and intellectual impairment and that consideration should be given to such diagnoses as these can inform the most appropriate treatment for each individual.

Keywords

Developmental disorder Intellectual disability Circadian Sleep Melatonin Autism Fragile X Angelman syndromeSmith-Magenis syndromeWilliams syndromeRett syndrome 

Abbreviations

AASM

American Academy of Sleep Medicine

AS

Angelman syndrome

ASD

Autism spectrum disorder

ASWPD

Advanced sleep-wake phase disorder

CRSWD

Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder

CRSWD-NOS

Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder—not otherwise specified

DD

Developmental disability

DLMO

Dim light melatonin onset

DS

Down syndrome

DSWPD

Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder

ICSD

International classification of sleep disorders

ID

Intellectual disability

ISWRD

Irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder

N24SWD

Non-24-h sleep-wake disorder

NDD

Neurodevelopmental disability

PWS

Prader-Willi syndrome

RS

Rett syndrome

SCN

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

SMS

Smith-Magenis syndrome

WS

Williams syndrome

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Olga Tennison Autism Research CentreLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Diagnosis and DevelopmentMurdoch Children’s Research InstituteParkvilleAustralia

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