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Insomnia

  • Jennifer A. AccardoEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Insomnia, especially sleep-onset association disorder type, is common among children with neurodevelopmental disabilities, though more often studied under the heading of sleep problems than in its own right. It has been defined as difficulty with sleep initiation, maintenance, and/or sleep quality that is persistent and impairing, and multiple prior diagnostic subtypes have been folded into a single category. Effects of insomnia in children on family sleep and dynamics can be significant. Not all sleep problems constitute insomnia, as, for instance, external forces can deprive children of adequate opportunity for sleep. Current practice suggests detailed evaluation for and treatment of any medical and psychiatric contributors, the use of behavioral and environmental strategies, and potential medication use to alleviate symptoms. Relevant future directions for study are manifold and involve moving away from describing the scope of the problem and toward more detailed phenotyping and applications for treatment.

Keywords

Children Neurodevelopmental disabilities Insomnia Inadequate sleep Short sleep duration Behavioral insomnia of sleep Sleep problems 

Abbreviations

ADHD

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

CBT-I

Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia

DSM-5

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition

DSM-IV-TR

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision

EEG

Electroencephalography

ICSD-3

International Classification of Sleep Disorders-3rd edition

IEP

Individualized Education Program

NDD

Neurodevelopmental disabilities

OSA

Obstructive sleep apnea

REM

Rapid eye movement

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Pediatrics and NeurologyVirginia Commonwealth University School of MedicineRichmondUSA

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