• Lawrence W. BrownEmail author


Sleep disorders can occur in any child, but the impact of inadequate, disrupted, or disturbed sleep is more common and frequently more consequential in individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities. The interactions between the underlying disorders can be specific and predictable, such as obstructive apnea in Down syndrome or an inverted sleep-wake cycle in Smith-Magenis syndrome. It can also be generic such as the impact of medication, as in sleep-onset insomnia and periodic movement disorder associated with ADHD, sedating anti-seizure drugs or boredom – induced daytime naps leading to shortened and/or disrupted nocturnal sleep in wheelchair-bound students in special education. This chapter will focus on medication treatment for specific sleep disorders associated with developmental disabilities as well as the current status of medical treatment for sleep disorders in all children – including insomnia, parasomnias, and excessive daytime sleepiness – but with an emphasis on the evidence concerning those with developmental disabilities.


Insomnia Excessive daytime sleepiness Parasomnia Down syndrome Smith-Magenis syndrome Restless legs syndrome Periodic limb movement disorder Kleine-Levin syndrome Melatonin 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurology and PediatricsThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

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