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Prematurity

  • Sundeep Singh Bola
  • Fiona Elize Kritzinger
  • Indra NarangEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Advancements in neonatal care over the past few decades have resulted in significant improvements in survival of increasingly preterm infants. This success in acute neonatal care requires increasing knowledge about the physiology of breathing in preterm infants both during wakefulness and sleep and the long-term implications of premature birth on sleep.

In this chapter, we will review the basics of ventilatory control with specific attention to the unique aspects in the preterm infant. Examination of how the preterm infant responds to changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ion homeostasis will facilitate an understanding of sleep-disordered breathing in this population. This chapter will focus on periodic breathing, apnea of prematurity, the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and apnea, and sudden infant death syndrome, as well as discussion regarding the long-term implications of preterm birth on breathing during sleep.

Keywords

Preterm Ventilation Hypoxia Apnea of prematurity Periodic breathing Sudden infant death syndrome 

Abbreviations

BPD

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

BSID

Bayley Score of Infant Development

CI

Confidence interval

GA

Gestational age

IVH

Intraventricular hemorrhage

PSG

Poysomnography

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

Ref

Reference number

SCU

Special care unit

SD

Standard deviation

SDB

Sleep-disordered breathing

VLBW

Very low birth weight

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sundeep Singh Bola
    • 1
  • Fiona Elize Kritzinger
    • 2
  • Indra Narang
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PaediatricsMarkham Stouffville HospitalMarkhamCanada
  2. 2.Christiaan Barnard Memorial HospitalCape TownSouth Africa
  3. 3.Division of Respiratory MedicineThe Hospital for Sick Children, University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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