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Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

  • Ann ReynoldsEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

To effectively manage sleep problems in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD), a comprehensive approach which explores all potential etiologies is needed. Sleep-related movement disorders (SRMD) may be an unrecognized cause of sleep disturbance in children with NDD; however, SRMD have not been adequately studied in this population. Limited evidence suggests that restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS) may be contributors to sleep disturbances in children with autism spectrum disorder and attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. There are also small studies which suggest that children with some genetic disorders may have an increased prevalence of PLMS. Children with NDD often have difficulty communicating symptoms, a skill which is critical to enable diagnosis of RLS. They also have difficulty cooperating with polysomnography, which is critical for making a diagnosis of PLMS. Diagnoses of sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorders are also problematic, as these behaviors are often present during the day as well as during sleep in individuals with NDD. These factors lead to difficulty making reliable diagnoses of a sleep-related movement disorder, which in turn leads to difficulty conducting research to establish the prevalence of and treatments for SRMD in individuals with NDD. Sleep is integral to optimal development and daytime function and to quality of life for individuals with NDD and their families. Therefore, further study is needed to understand the impact of SRMD in individuals with NDD.

Keywords

Sleep Movement disorders Restless legs syndrome Periodic limb movements Bruxism Neurodevelopmental disorders Autism spectrum disorders Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Iron Dopamine 

Abbreviations

ADHD

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

AHI

Apnea-hypopnea index

ASD

Autism spectrum disorder

DD

Developmental delay

EMG

Electromyogram

FDA

Federal Drug Administration

GP

Growing pains

ID

Intellectual disability

NDD

Neurodevelopmental disabilities

OSA

Obstructive sleep apnea

PLMD

Periodic limb movement disorder

PLMI

Periodic limb movement index

PLMS

Periodic limb movements of sleep

PSG

Polysomnogram

PSQ

Pediatric sleep questionnaire

RCT

Randomized control trial

REM

Rapid eye movement

RLS

Restless legs syndrome

RMD

Rhythmic movement disorder

RMMA

Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity

SRB

Sleep-related bruxism

SRMD

Sleep-related movement disorder

SSRI

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

TD

Typical development

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver, Children’s Hospital ColoradoAuroraUSA

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