A Dynamic Towards Gender Equality? Participation and Employment in European Labour Markets
In most European countries, female participation in the labour force increased dramatically over the last decades. Nevertheless, the gender gap in participation remain large. Beside these trends, the most recent business cycles affected differently female and male employment and the gendered impact of the great recession is now well documented in the literature. In this chapter, we describe the evolution of the European labour markets with a gender perspective. We analyse the trends in two major indicators, participation and employment rate, considering the type of gender regime that characterized each country. For each indicator, we distinguish the structural evolutions from the cyclical dynamic explained to the crisis. The increase in the level of education of women is a major factor of their growing participation in the labour market. We discuss how the European Union attempted to monitor the increase in female involvement on the labour market and the decrease in the gender gap. By focusing on employment rate without considering part-time employment, the European Employment strategy has limited the achievement in terms of gender equality, especially for countries with a high share of women working part-time. The H2020 framework contains no gender targets.
KeywordsGender inequalities Labour market European Employment Strategy Recession Gender regimes
- Addabbo, T., P. Rodríguez, and L. Gálvez. 2015. Gender Differences in Labor Force Participation Rates in Spain and Italy Under the Great Recession. World Economy Journal 41: 21–42.Google Scholar
- Akgunduz, Y.E., and J. Plantenga. 2015. Childcare Prices and Maternal Employment: A Meta-analysis. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/files/153/6400130.pdf.
- Allègre, G., and G. Verdugo. 2017. Labour Force Participation and Job Polarization: Evidence from Europe During the Great Recession. OFCE Working Paper, 1.Google Scholar
- Bettio, F., J. Plantenga, and M. Smith. 2013. Gender and the European Labour Market. New York: Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.fr/books?id=nmVb1j8w5n0C&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq=lisbon+strategy+gender&source=bl&ots=vTxe2uzPKS&sig=kBFbVxgSsBgjGBmPifQtQ4PifEY&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj2lq_GmLrbAhVLkRQKHXQfAvwQ6AEIaTAI#v=onepage&q=lisbon strategy gender&f=false.
- Bredtmann, J., S. Otten, and C. Rulff. 2014. Husband’s Unemployment and Wife’s Labor Supply—The Added Worker Effect Across Europe. Ruhr Economic Papers. https://doi.org/10.4419/86788550.
- Bryan, M., and S. Longhi. 2013. Couples’ Labour Supply Responses to Job Loss: Growth and Recession Compared. IZA Discussion Paper (7775). https://doi.org/10.1111/manc.12186.
- Ellina, C.A. 2003. Promoting Women’s Rights: The Politics of Gender in the European Union. Routledge. Retrieved from https://www.routledge.com/Promoting-Womens-Rights-Politics-of-Gender-in-the-European-Union/Ellina/p/book/9780203506783.
- Eydoux, A., A. Math, and H. Périvier. 2014. European Labour Markets in Times of Crisis a Gender Perspective. Revue de l’OFCE 133 (2). https://doi.org/10.3917/reof.133.0007.
- González Gago, E., and M. Segales Kirzner. 2014. Women, Gender Equality and the Economic Crisis in Spain. In Women and Austerity: The Economic Crisis and the Future for Gender Equality, ed. M. Karamessini and J. Rubery, 228–248. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Gush, K., J. Scott, and H. Laurie. 2015. Households’ Responses to Spousal Job Loss: “All Change” or “Carry on as Usual”? Work, Employment & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017014556411.
- Hoskyns, C. 1996. Integrating Gender: Women, Law and Politics in the European Union. Verso. Retrieved from https://books.google.fr/books/about/Integrating_Gender.html?id=rjRu4M-zfH8C&redir_esc=y.
- Karamessini, M., and F. Koutentakis. 2014. Labour Market Flows and Unemployment Dynamics by Sex in Greece During the Crisis. Revue de l’O 133: 216–239.Google Scholar
- Karamessini, M., and J. Rubery, eds. 2013. Women and Austerity: The Economic Crisis and the Future for Gender Equality. Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
- ———. 2014. The Challenge of Austerity for Equality. Revue de l’OFCE 133 (2): 15. https://doi.org/10.3917/reof.133.0015.
- Périvier, H. 2014. Men and Women During the Economic Crisis. Employments Trends in Eight European Countries. Revue de l’OFCE (133): 41. https://doi.org/10.3917/reof.133.0041.
- ———. 2018. Recession, Austerity and Gender: A Comparison of Eight European Labour Markets. International Labour Review. https://doi.org/10.1111/ilr.12032.
- Rubery, J. 1988. Women and Recession. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- ———. 2015. Austerity and the Future for Gender Equality in Europe. ILR Review 68 (4): 715–741.Google Scholar
- Stratigaki, M. 2004. The Cooptation of Gender Concepts in EU Policies: The Case of “Reconciliation of Work and Family”. Social Politics 11 (1): 30–56+145. https://doi.org/10.1093/sp/jxh025.
- Verashchagina, Alina, and Marina Capparucci. 2014. Living Through the Crisis in Italy: Labour Market Experiences of Men and Women. In Women and Austerity: The Economic Crisis and the Future for Gender Equality, ed. Maria Karamessini and Jill Rubery, 248–270. IAFFE Advances in Feminist Economics. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Villa, P., and M. Smith. 2013. Policy in a Time of Crisis. In Women and Austerity: The Economic Crisis and the Future for Gender Equality, vol. 11, 273. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Vuri, D. 2016. Do Childcare Policies Increase Maternal Employment? IZA World of Labor, March 1–10. https://doi.org/10.15185/izawol.241.