Theories of Sexual Crime Prevention
How we prevent sexual crime occurring in the first place rather than our only responding to abuse and sexual violence after it has occurred is increasingly being recognised as an urgent and significant issue in contemporary society. This chapter provides a foundation for considering this subject, examining the diversity of different situations that constitute sexual crimes and exploring early approaches to sexual violence prevention developed by grass-roots activist movements in the 1970s. The chapter looks at key definitions of terms used in contemporary approaches to prevention and provides an overview of developmental, situational, and community-based approaches. The chapter finishes by arguing that current theories of the aetiology of sexual offending have been under-utilised in the development of prevention programmes, although the literature concerning causal mechanisms associated with the emergence of sexual violence has generally downplayed issues in relation to gender.
KeywordsPrevention Sexual crime Sexual violence Child sexual abuse Theory
- Allardyce, S., Wylie, N., Ritchie, B., Sharpe, M., & Barron, I. (2016). Preventing adolescent harmful sexual behaviour: A NOTA think piece. Retrieved from http://www.nota.co.uk/media/1304/think-piece-preventing-adolescent-harmful-sexual-behaviour-24317.pdf. Accessed 7 May 2018.
- Allnock, D., & Miller, P. (2013). No one noticed, no one heard: A study of disclosures of childhood abuse. London: NSPCC.Google Scholar
- Bourke, J. (2015). Rape: A history from 1860 to the present. London: Virago.Google Scholar
- Brown, J., O’Donnell, T., & Erooga, M. (2011). Sexual abuse: A public health challenge. London: NSPCC.Google Scholar
- Burrowes, N., & Horvath, T. (2013). The rape and sexual assault of men: A review of the literature. London: Survivors UK.Google Scholar
- Davidson, L., & Omar, H. A. (2014). Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health, 7(2), 103–107.Google Scholar
- Davis, R., Parks, L. F., & Cohen, L. (2006). Sexual violence and the spectrum of prevention: Towards a community solution. Enola, PA: National Sexual Violence Resource Center.Google Scholar
- Donaldson, A., McCarry, M., & McGoldrick, R. (2018). Equally safe in higher education. Glasgow, UK: Strathclyde University. Retrieved from https://www.strath.ac.uk/humanities/schoolofsocialworksocialpolicy/equallysafeinhighereducation/eshetoolkit/. Accessed 7 May 2018.
- Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2010). The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: Implications for healthcare. In R. A. Lanius, V. Eric, & P. Clare (Eds.), The impact of early life trauma on health and disease: The hidden epidemic (pp. 77–87). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Finkelhor, D. (1984). Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. Washington, DC: Sage.Google Scholar
- Finkelhor, D., & Araji, S. (1986). A sourcebook on child sexual abuse. Washington, DC: Sage.Google Scholar
- Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., & Chaffin, M. (2009). Juveniles who commit sex offenses against minors. (Online). Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Retrieved from www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/227763.pdf. Accessed 7 May 2018.
- Gendreau, P., Paparozzi, M., Little, T., & Goddard, M. (1993). Does “punishing smarter” work? An assessment of the new generation of alternative sanctions in probation. Forum on Corrections Research, 5(3), 31–34.Google Scholar
- Greijer, S., & Doek, J. (2016). Terminology guidelines for the protection of children from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. Luxembourg, Europe: ECPAT International and ECPAT Luxembourg.Google Scholar
- Harvey, A., Garcia-Moreno, C., & Butchart, A. (2007). Primary prevention of intimate-partner violence and sexual violence: Background paper for WHO expert meeting May 2–3, 2007. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Department of Violence and Injury Prevention and Disability.Google Scholar
- Heilman, B. (2018). Masculine norms and violence: Making the connections, Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://promundoglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Masculine-Norms-and-Violence-Making-the-Connection-20180424.pdf. Accessed 7 May 2018.
- Higgins, D. J., Kaufman, K., & Erooga, M. (2016). How can child welfare and youth-serving organisations keep children safe? Developing Practice: The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal, 44(48–64).Google Scholar
- International Labour Organisation. (2015). Commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking of children “in a nutshell”: A resource for Pacific Island countries. Geneva, Switzerland: ILO.Google Scholar
- Kelly, L. (1988). Surviving sexual violence. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
- Malamuth, N. M. (1996). The confluence model of sexual aggression: Feminist and evolutionary perspectives. In D. Buss (Ed.), Sex, power, conflict: Evolutionary and feminist perspectives (pp. 269–295). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- McCarry, M. (2017). Sexual violence on campus: Evidence and action. European network on gender and violence. Paper presented at European Network on Gender and Violence, Milan, Italy.Google Scholar
- McCartan, K. (2010). Media constructions of, and reactions to, paedophilia in society. In K. Harrison (Ed.), Managing high risk sex-offenders in the community. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Moynihan, M. M., Banyard, V. L., Arnold, J. S., Eckstein, R. P., & Stapleton, J. G. (2011). Sisterhood may be powerful for reducing sexual and intimate partner violence: An evaluation of the bringing in the bystander in-person program with sorority members. Violence Against Women, 17(6), 703–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Office of the Children’s Commissioner. (2015). Protecting children from harm: A critical assessment of child sexual abuse in the family network in England and priorities for action. London: Office of the Children’s Commissioner.Google Scholar
- Oxford English Dictionary. (2007). Shorter Oxford English dictionary (6th ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Rush, F. (1980). The best kept secret: Sexual abuse of children. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Saied-Tessier, A. (2014). Estimating the costs of child sexual abuse in the UK. London: NSPCC.Google Scholar
- Seto, M. C. (2017). The motivation-facilitation model of sexual offending. Sexual Abuse. https://doi.org/10.1177/1079063217720919.
- Sherman, L. W., & Eck, J. E. (2002). Policing for crime prevention. In L. W. Sherman, D. L. MacKenzie, D. P. Farrington, & B. C. Welsh (Eds.), Evidence-based crime prevention (pp. 295–329). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Smallbone, S., Marshall, W. L., & Wortley, R. (2008). Preventing child sexual abuse: Evidence, policy and practice. Oxford, UK: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
- Smallbone, S., & Wortley, R. K. (2000). Child sexual abuse in Queensland: Offender characteristics and modus operandi. Brisbane, QLD: Queensland Crime Commission and Queensland Police Service.Google Scholar
- Solnit, R. (2018, March 8). Feminists have slowly shifted power, there’s no going back. Guardian.Google Scholar
- Tabachnick, J. (2008). Engaging bystanders in sexual violence prevention. Enola, PA: National Sexual Violence Resource Center.Google Scholar
- Tilley, N., Rayment-McHugh, S., Smallbone, S., Wardell, M., Smith, D., Allard, T., et al. (2014). On being realistic about reducing the prevalence and impacts of youth sexual violence and abuse in two Australian Indigenous communities. Learning Communities: International Journal of Learning in Social Contexts, 14, 6–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- UNICEF. (1989). Convention on the rights of the child. Child Labor, 8.Google Scholar
- Walsh, K., Zwi, K., Woolfenden, S., & Shlonsky, A. (2015). School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse (1465–1858). Retrieved from. https://www.cochrane.org/CD004380/BEHAV_school-based-programmes-for-the-prevention-of-childsexual-abuse
- World Health Organization. (2013). Global and regional estimates of violence against women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Wortley, R., & Smallbone, S. (2006). Applying situational principles to sexual offenses against children. Crime Prevention Studies, 19, 7.Google Scholar