Advertisement

Social Media and YouTube

  • Yasser El Miedany
Chapter

Abstract

Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in using social media in every area of education whether undergraduate, postgraduate or continuous medical education. As of March 2018, “Alexa Internet” identified YouTube and Facebook as the second and third most popular websites on the Internet. The YouTube educational value has been epitomized by the establishment of YouTube Education. When applied to medical education, social media as well as YouTube are seen to hold remarkable potential to help both medical educators/healthcare professionals and students to enter this new technology era, enhancing their teaching–learning experiences through customization, personalization and opportunities for networking and collaboration. Given the relative easiness of producing and uploading videos on YouTube and social media as well as its free content, it has become a pool of a huge quantity of educational videos in different specialties uploaded by students and teachers. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce theoretical aspects of using social media and YouTube in education and explore the effectiveness and utility of YouTube as an educational resource across the medical education continuum and its potential impact on the learning process and how these new tools are currently being employed for medical education. It will expand to discuss how to create your videos and the art of optimizing your educational video.

Keywords

Medical education Educational technology Medicine 2.0 Continued social media education YouTube YouTube and medical education Rheumatology education Rheumavideos 

References

  1. 1.
    Bleakley A, Bligh J, Browne J. Medical education for the future: identity, power and location. Springer: Dordrecht. isbn: 9789048196913.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Masic I, Pandza H, Toromanovic S, Masic F, Sivic S, Zunic L, Masic Z. Information technologies (ITs) in medical education. Acta Informatica Med. 2011;19(3):68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cooke M, Irby DM, Sullivan W, Ludmerer KM. American medical education 100 years after the Flexner report. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1339–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Howick J. The philosophy of evidence-based medicine. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell/BMJ Books; 2011. isbn: 9781405196673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tilson JK, Kaplan SR, Harris JL, Hutchinson A, Ilic D, Niederman R, Potomkova J, Zwolsman SE. Sicily statement on classification and development of evidence-based practice learning assessment tools. BMC Med Educ. 2011;11:78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Taylor P. From patient data to medical knowledge: the principles and practice of health informatics. Malden: Wiley; 2006. isbn: 9780727917731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Westwood JD. Medicine meets virtual reality 2001: outer space, inner space, virtual space. Amsterdam: IOS Press; 2001. isbn: 9781586031435Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cullen R. Health information on the internet: a study of providers, quality, and users. Westport: Praeger; 2006. isbn: 9780865693227Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    King’s Undergraduate Medical Education in the Community (KUMEC). 2016. https://www.kcl.ac.uk/lsm/research/divisions/hscr/study/undergradops/kumec/MBBS-2020.aspx. Accessed on 22 Apr 2018.
  10. 10.
    Borges NJ, Manuel S, Elam CL, Jones BJ. Comparing millennial and generation X medical students at one medical school. Acad Med. 2006;81:571–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Farnan JM, Paro JA, Higa J, Edelson J, Arora VM. The YouTube generation: implications for medical professionalism. Perspect Biol Med. 2008;51(4):517–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miedany E. Flipped learning: can rheumatology lead the shift in medical education? Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2018. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ruiz JG, Mintzer MJ, Leipzig RM. The impact of E-learning in medical education. Acad Med. 2006;81:207–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shamji AI, Law M. The role of technology in medical education: lessons from the University of Toronto. UTMJ. 2011;88(3):150–3.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bozorgmehr K, Saint VA, Tinnemann P. The ‘global health’ education framework: a conceptual guide for monitoring, evaluation and practice. Glob Health. 2011;7(1):8.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-8603-7-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Celletti F, Reynolds TA, Wright A, Stoertz A, Dayrit M. Educating a new generation of doctors to improve the health of populations in low- and middle income countries. PLoS Med. 2011;8(10):e1001108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schwarz MR. Globalization and medical education. Med Teach. 2001;23(6):533–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Potomkova J, Mihal V, Schwarz D. In: Kofuji S, editor. Medical education for YouTube generation, e-learning – engineering, on-job training and interactive teaching. isbn: 978-953-51-0283-0. InTech; 2012. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/e-learning-engineering-on-job-training-andinteractive-teaching/medical-education-for-youtube-generation.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Palmer D, El Miedany Y. Shared decision making for patients living with inflammatory arthritis. Br J Nurs. 2016;25(1):31–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Prober CG, Heath C. Lecture halls without lectures – a proposal for medical education. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(18):1657–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bridge PD, Jackson M, Robinson L. The effectiveness of streaming video on medical student learning: a case study. Med Educ Online. 2009;14:11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hurtubise L, Martin B, Gilliland A, Mahan J. To play or not to play: leveraging video in medical education. J Grad Med Educ. 2013;5(1):13–8.  https://doi.org/10.4300/JGME-05-01-32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Orientale E Jr, Kosowicz L, Alerte A, et al. Using web-based video to enhance physical examination skills in medical students. Fam Med. 2008;40:471–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Srivastava G, Roddy M, Langsam D, Agrawal D. An educational video improves technique in performance of pediatric lumbar punctures. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28:12–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kalish R, Dawiskiba M, Sung YC, Blanco M. Raising medical student awareness of compassionate care through reflection of annotated videotapes of clinical encounters. Educ Health (Abingdon). 2011;24:490.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Azer SA. Mechanisms in cardiovascular diseases: how useful are medical textbooks, eMedicine, and YouTube? Adv Physiol Educ. 2015;38(2):124–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Koya KD, Bhatia KR, Hsu JTS, Bhatia AC. YouTube and the expanding role of videos in dermatologic surgery education. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2012;31(3):163–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schmidt RS, Shi LL, Sethna A. Use of streaming media (YouTube) as an educational tool for surgeons-a survey of AAFPRS members. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2016;18(3):230–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rapp AK, Healy MG, Charlton ME, Keith JN, Rosenbaum ME, Kapadia MR. YouTube is the most frequently used educational video source for surgical preparation. J Surg Educ. 2016;73(6):1072–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chiu C, Lee GC, Yang J. A comparative study on post-class lecture video viewing. Adv Technol Learn. 2006;3(3):195203.  https://doi.org/10.2316/Journal.208.2006.3.208-0886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    DeWitt D, Alias N, Siraj S, Yaakub MY, Ayob J, Ishak R. The potential of Youtube for teaching and learning in the performing arts. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2013;103:1118–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lindstrom R. The business week guide to multimedia presentations: create dynamic presentations that inspire. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zahn C, Pea R, Hesse FW, Rosen J. Comparing simple and advanced video tools as supports for complex collaborative design processes. J Learn Sci. 2010;19:403–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Alias N, DeWitt D, Siraj S. Development of science pedagogical module based on learning styles and technology. Kuala Lumpur: Pearson Malaysia Sdn. Bhd; 2013.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bunus P. The Social Network Classroom. Technology enhanced learning: Quality of teaching and educational reform. 2010;73:517–24.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Greenhow C, Robelia B. Informal learning and identity formation in online social networks. Learn Media Technol. 2009;34(2):119–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Youtube.com. Statistics YouTube. 2018. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/yt/press/statistics.html. [cited 22 April 2018].
  38. 38.
    Support.google.com. Demographics report YouTube help. 2018. Available from: https://support.google.com/youtube/answer/1715072?hl=en-GB. [cited 22 April 2018].
  39. 39.
    Leonard W. A comparison of student performance following instruction by interactive videodisc versus conventional laboratory. J Res Sci Teach. 1992;29:93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Romanov K, Nevgi A. Do medical students watch video clips in eLearning and do these facilitate learning? Med Teach. 2007;29:490–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Saxena V, Natarajan P, O'Sullivan PS, et al. Effect of the use of instructional anatomy videos on student performance. Anat Sci Educ. 2008;1:159–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bridge PD, Jackson M, Robinson L. The effectiveness of streaming video on medical student learning: a case study. Med Educ Online. 2009;14:11.  https://doi.org/10.3885/meo.2009.Res00311. Available from http://www.med-ed-online.org.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McNulty JA, Hoyt A, Gruener G, et al. An analysis of lecture video utilization in undergraduate medical education: associations with performance in the courses. BMC Med Educ. 2009;9:6.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-9-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schacter J. The impact of education technology on student achievement: what the most current research has to say. 1st ed. Santa Monika: The Milken Family Foundation; 1999. p. 12. URL: https://bookertdev.ito.lacoe.edu/funding_coordination/docs/impact_of_et.pdf. Accessed 22 Apr 2018.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ruiz JG, Mintzer MJ, Leipzig RM. The impact of e-learning in medical education. Acad Med. 2006;81:207–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Roberts G. Technology and learning expectations of the net generation. In: Oblinger DG, Oblinger JL, editors. Educating the net generation. 1st ed. Boulder: EDUCAUSE; 2005. p. 3.1–7. Accessed 22 Apr 2018.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    DiLullo C, McGee P, Kriebel RM. Demystifying the Millennial student: a reassessment in measures of character and engagement in professional education. Anat Sci Educ. 2011;4:214–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Boulos MN, Maramba I, Wheeler S. Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education. BMC Med Educ. 2006;6:41–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wilen-Daugenti T. Twenty-first century trends for higher education. 1st ed. San Jose: Cisco Systems; 2007. p. 12. URL: http://ftp.ucv.ve/Documentos/Evento_Cisco/Top_trends_in_Education_White_Paper.pdf. Accessed 22 Apr 2018.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stanciu A, Mihai F, Aleca O. Social networking as an alternative environment for education. Acc Manag Inf Syst. 2012;11:56–75.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lei C, Krilavicius T, Zhang N, et al. Using Web 2.0 tools to enhance learning in higher education. A case study in technological education. In: Proceedings of the international multi-conference of engineers and computer scientists (IMECS). vol. II. 2012. URL: http://www.iaeng.org/publication/IMECS2012/IMECS2012_pp1153-1156.pdf. Accessed 22 Apr 2018.
  52. 52.
    Nicole A. Buzzetto-more social networking in undergraduate education. Special section on social networking, teaching, and learning. Interdiscip J Inform Knowl Manag. 2012;7:63–90.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Forgie S, Duff J, Ross S. Twelve tips for using Twitter as a learning tool in medical education. Med Teach. 2013;35:8–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hans O, Carlos R, Murray E, Alejandro J. What is eHealth (3): a systematic review of published definitions. J Med Internet Res. 2005;7(1):e1.  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.7.1.e1. http://www.jmir.org/2005/1/e1/v7e1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
  56. 56.
    Ebrahim R. Exploring technology impacts of healthcare 2.0 initiatives. Telemed J E Health. 2009;15(3):255–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    voor de Volksgezondheid R. Webcite: Health 2.0: plan van aanpak. 2010. http://www.rvz.net/data/download/4372-09_plan_van_aanpak_definitief.doc.
  58. 58.
    Eysenbach G, Köhler C. Health-related searches on the internet. J Am Med Assoc. 2004;291(24):2946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cure together. Website: http://www.curetogether.com.
  60. 60.
    Community Artsennet.nl. Website: http://www.artsennet.nl/.
  61. 61.
    Engelen LJLPG. Slideshare. Website: Zorg 2.0 intro Spanje VWS/Nictiz. http://www.slideshare.net/lucienengelen/zorg-20-intro-spanje-vws-nictiz.
  62. 62.
    O’Reilly T. O’Reilly media. Website: What is web 2.0? http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html.
  63. 63.
    Hansen Margaret M. Versatile, immersive, creative and dynamic virtual 3-D healthcare learning environments: a review of the literature. J Med Internet Res. 2008;10(3):e26. http://www.jmir.org/2008/3/e26/v10i3e26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wikipedia. Website: Web 2.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0.
  65. 65.
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Website: Working party on the information economy. participative web: user-created content. 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/57/14/38393115.pdf.
  66. 66.
    Mark T. Twittering healthcare: social media and medicine. Telemed J E Health. 2009;15(6):507–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Van De Belt T, Engelen L, Schoonhoven L. Definition of Health 2.0 and Medicine 2.0: a systematic review. J Med Internet Res. 2010;12(2):e18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
  69. 69.
    Benjamin H, Indra J, Jonathan W. Health 2.0 and Medicine 2.0: tensions and controversies in the field. J Med Internet Res. 2008;10(3):e23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Scienceroll MB. Webcite: Medicine 2.0. http://scienceroll.com/medicine-20/.
  71. 71.
    Gunther E. Medicine 2.0: social networking, collaboration, participation, apomediation, and openness. J Med Internet Res. 2008;10(3):e22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Patients Like Me. Website: http://www.patientslikeme.com/.
  73. 73.
    Hello Health. Website: http://hellohealth.com/.
  74. 74.
  75. 75.
    Slideshare BB. Website: Parkinson net. http://www.slideshare.net/lucienengelen/bloem-zorg.
  76. 76.
    De Rijksoverheid KA. Voor Nederland. Website: Behandeling Parkinson voorbeeld van patient centraal. http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten-en-publicaties/toespraken/2008/12/01/behandeling-parkinson-voorbeeld-van-patient-centraal.html.
  77. 77.
    Bos L, Marsh A, Carroll D, Gupta S, Rees M. icmcc.org. Website: Patient 2.0 empowerment. http://www.icmcc.org/pdf/ICMCCSWWS08.pdf.
  78. 78.
    Web 3.0. Techopedia. https://www.techopedia.com/definition/4923/web-30. Accessed on 5 May 2018.
  79. 79.
    El Miedany Y, El Gaafary M, Youssef S, Bahlas S, Almedany S, Ahmed I, Palmer D. Toward electronic health recording: evaluation of electronic patient-reported outcome measures system for remote monitoring of early rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2016;43(12):2106–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    El Miedany Y, El Gaafary M, El Aroussy N, Bahlas S, Hegazi M, Palmer D, Youssef S. Toward electronic health recording: evaluation of electronic patient reported outcome measures (e-PROMs) system for remote monitoring of early systemic lupus patients. Clin Rheumatol. 2017;36(11):2461–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    El Miedany Y, El Gaafary M, Palmer D. Assessment of the utility of visual feedback in the treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot study. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32(10):3061–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Popoiua MC, Grosseck G, Holotescu C. What do we know about the use of social media in medical education? Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2012;46:2262–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kim K, Yoo-Lee E, Joanna Sin S. Social media as information source: undergraduates’ use and evaluation behavior. Proc Am Soc Info Sci Tech. 2011;48:1–3.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    El Miedany Y, El Gaafary M, El Aroussy N, Youssef S. Flipped learning: can rheumatology lead the shift in medical education? Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.2174/1573397114666180416170156.
  85. 85.
    Madanick RD. Social media in medical education: embracing a new medium. Paper given at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine on October 27, 2011, as part of the UNC Academy of Educators Lecture Series. 2011. Available at http://www.slideshare.net/ryanmadanickmd/lc11-015so-me-in-meded.
  86. 86.
    Courosa A. Social media, networked learning & identity. 2011. http://www.slideshare.net/courosa/social-media-networked-learning-identity.
  87. 87.
    Chretien KC, Greysen SR, Chretien JP, Kind T. Online posting of unprofessional content by medical students. JAMA. 2009;302(12):1309–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jain SH. Practicing medicine in the age of Facebook. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:649–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Doyle D. E-medical education: an overview. In: Shukla A, Tiwari R, editors. Biomedical engineering and information systems: technologies, tools and applications. Hershey: Medical Information Science Reference; 2011. p. 219–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Clifton A, Mann C. Can YouTube enhance student nurse learning? Nurse Educ Today. 2011;31(4):311–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fernandez V, Simo P, Algaba I, Albareda-Sambola M, Salan N, Amante B, et al. “Low-cost educational videos” for engineering students: a new concept based on video streaming and YouTube channels. Int J Eng Educ. 2011;27(3):518–27.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Stohlmann M. YouTube incorporated with Mathematical modelling activities: benefits, concerns, and future research opportunities. Int J Technol Math Educ. 2012;19(3):117–24.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Marks R. I learned it from YouTube! (And other challenges of teaching voice). J Sing. 2013;69(5):589–92.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Duvivier RJ, van Geel K, van Dalen J, Scherpbier AJ, van der Vleuten CP. Learning physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions: what happens and why? Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2012;17(3):339–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bhoopatkar H, Weam A. Medical students describe their patterns of practising clinical examination skills outside time tabled sessions. Med Teach. 2008;30(3):334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Holzinger A, Kickmeier-Rust MD, Wassertheurer S, Hessinger M. Learning performance with interactive simulations in medical education: lessons learned from results of learning complex physiological models with the HAEMOdynamics SIMulator. Comput Educ. 2009;52(2):292–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Azer SA. Navigating problem-based learning. Marrickville: Elsevier Australia; 2008.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hessinger M, Holzinger A, Leitner D, Wassertheurer S. Hemodynamic models for education in physiology. Math Comput Simul. 2008;79(4):1039–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lemley T, Burnham JF. Web 2.0 tools in medical and nursing school curricula. J Med Libr Assoc. 2009;97(1):50–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Azer SA, Guerrero AP, Walsh A. Enhancing learning approaches: practical tips for students and teachers. Med Teach. 2013;35(6):433–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Weiner SA, Stephens G, Nour AY. Information-seeking behaviors of first-semester veterinary students: a preliminary report. J Vet Med Educ. 2011;38(1):21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mirando MA, Bewley JM, Blue J, Amaral-Phillips DM, Corriher VA, Whittet KM, Arthur N, Patterson DJ. Extension education symposium: reinventing extension as a resource – what does the future hold? J Anim Sci. 2012;90(10):3677–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Keene AB, Shiloh AL, Dudaie R, Eisen LA, Savel RH. Online testing from Google Docs™ to enhance teaching of core topics in critical care: a pilot study. Med Teach. 2012;34(12):1075–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kingsley K, Galbraith GM, Herring M, Stowers E, Stewart T, Kingsley KV. Why not just Google it? An assessment of information literacy skills in a biomedical science curriculum. BMC Med Educ. 2011;11:17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Boulos MN, Maramba I, Wheeler S. Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education. BMC Med Educ. 2006;6:41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Baudains C, Metters E, Easton G, Booton P. What educational resources are medical students using for personal study during primary care attachments? Educ Prim Care. 2013;24(5):340–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Alexa Traffic Rank for YouTube. 2011. Webcite: http://www.alexa.com/search?q=youtube.com%2C&p=&r=.
  108. 108.
    Goodwin D. YouTube now serving 4 billion videos daily. Webcite: Search engine watch. http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2141050/YouTube-Now-Serving-4-Billion-Videos-Daily.
  109. 109.
    Gabarron E, Fernandez-Luque L, Armayones M, Lau AY. Identifying measures used for assessing quality of YouTube videos with patient health information: a review of current literature. Interact J Med Res. 2013;2(1):e6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Azer A, AlGrain H, AlKhelaif R, AlEshaiwi S. Evaluation of the educational value of YouTube videos about physical examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15(11):e241–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Butler DP, Perry F, Shah Z, Leon-Villapalos J. The quality of video information on burn first aid available on YouTube. Burns. 2012;1.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ache KA, Wallace LS. Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage on YouTube. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35(4):389–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Schreiber JJ, Warren RF, Hotchkiss RN, Daluiski A. An online video investigation into the mechanism of elbow dislocation. J Hand Surg Am. 2013;38(3):488–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Topps D, Helmer J, Ellaway R. YouTube as a platform for publishing clinical skills training videos. Acad Med. 2013;88(2):192–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Singh AG, Singh S, Singh PP. YouTube for information on rheumatoid arthritis – a wakeup call? J Rheumatol. 2012;39(5):899–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Clifton A, Mann C. Can YouTube enhance student nurse learning? Nurse Educ Today. 2011;31(4):311–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Human Anatomy Education Channel. Akram Abood Jaffar, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. 2011. URL: www.youtube.com/user/akramjfr.
  118. 118.
    Azer SA. Can “YouTube” help students in learning surface anatomy? Surg Radiol Anat. 2012;34(5):465–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Murugiah K, Vallakati A, Rajput K, Sood A, Challa NR. YouTube as a source of information on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2011;82(3):332–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Knösel M, Jung K, Bleckmann A. YouTube, dentistry, and dental education. J Dent Educ. 2011;75(12):1558–68. http://www.jdentaled.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=22184594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Fat MJ, Doja A, Barrowman N, Sell E. YouTube videos as a teaching tool and patient resource for infantile spasms. J Child Neurol. 2011;26(7):804–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    El Miedany Y, El Aroussy N, Youssef S, Almedany S, Palmer D. Teaching the millennials: using YouTube for teaching rheumatology in the standard educational setting. Ann Rheum Dis. 2018;77:1782.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Jaffar A. YouTube: an emerging tool in anatomy education. Anat Sci Ed. 2012;5:158–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Jaffar A. Tips for using YouTube in medical education. Iraqi J Med Sci. 2013;11(2):102–8.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jackman WM, Roberts P. Students’ perspectives on YouTube video usage as an e-resource in the university classroom. J Educ Technol Syst. 2014;42(3):273–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Chelaru SV, Rodriguez C, Altingovde I. Can social features help learning to rank YouTube videos? Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE. 2012. p. 552–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Camm CF, Sunderlan N, Camm AA. Quality assessment of cardiac auscultation material on YouTube. Clin Cardiol. 2013;36:77–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Murugiah K, Vallakati A, Rajput K, et al. YouTube as a source of information on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2011;82:332–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    YouTube. About YouTube. San Francisco: YouTube, LLC; 2013.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
  131. 131.
    Tao D, Adsul P, Wray R, et al. Search strategy effectiveness and relevance of YouTube videos. Proc Am Soc Info Sci Tech. 2012;49:1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lardinois F. YouTube changes its search ranking algorithm to focus on engagement, not just clicks. Teckcrunch; 2012. http://techcrunch.com/2012/10/12/youtube-changesits-search-ranking-algorithm-to-focus-on-engagementnot-just-clicks/.
  133. 133.
    YouTube. YouTube support. San Bruno: YouTube, LLC. URL: http://support.google.com/youtube/.
  134. 134.
    YouTube. Playbook guide: education. San Bruno: YouTube, LLC; 2012. URL: http://storage.googleapis.com/support-kmsprod/SNP_2799330_en_v1.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Khan Academy. Mountain View: Khan Academy. URL: www.khanacademy.org.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasser El Miedany
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.King’s College London, Darent Valley HospitalDartfordUK
  2. 2.Rheumatology and RehabilitationAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations