Periodontal Diseases

  • Ronnie Levine
  • Catherine Stillman-Lowe
Part of the BDJ Clinician’s Guides book series (BDJCG)


The most common form of periodontal disease—chronic periodontitis—usually develops in two stages, gingivitis, inflammation of the gum margin, usually caused by inadequate oral hygiene and the later stage, chronic periodontitis, when the tooth’s supporting bone and fibres are progressively destroyed. Risk factors include poor oral hygiene, tobacco use and diabetes. Prevention depends on a healthy diet.


Plaque biofilm Gingivitis Periodontitis Diabetes 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronnie Levine
    • 1
  • Catherine Stillman-Lowe
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Oral SurgeryUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.ReadingUK

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