Ocular Surface Evaluation Prior to Glaucoma Medical Treatment

  • Giedre Pakuliene


Comprehensive collection of medical history prior to glaucoma medical treatment is highly recommended, including allergies, systemic inflammatory diseases, other ocular diseases, systemic and ocular medications, supplements and artificial tears.
  1. 1.

    Biomicroscopy. Ocular surface evaluation can help to predict antiglaucomatous medications’ adverse effects, such as conjunctival allergies, conjunctival injection, hotness, irritation, corneal epithelium disorders and blepharitis [1].



  1. 1.
    Alessandro GA, Teresa R. Ocular surface alterations and topical Antiglaucomatous therapy: a review. Open Ophthalmol J. 2014;8(1):67–72. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Denniston AKO, Murray PI. Oxford handbook of ophthalmology. Oxford: OUP; 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dundas M, Walker A, Woods RL. Clinical grading of corneal staining of non-contact Lens wearers. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2001;21:30–5. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Monaco G, Cacioppo V, Consonni D, Troiano P. Effects of osmoprotection on symptoms, ocular surface damage, and tear film modifications caused by glaucoma therapy. Eur J Ophthalmol. n.d.;21(3):243–50. Accessed 6 Mar 2018
  5. 5.
    Rocha G, Gulliver E, Borovik A, Chan CC. Randomized, masked, in vitro comparison of three commercially available tear film Osmometers. Clin Ophthalmol. 2017;11(January):243–8. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li M, Chixin D, Zhu D, Shen M, Cui L, Wang J. Daytime variations of tear osmolarity and tear meniscus volume. Eye Contact Lens. 2012a;38(5):282–7. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Potvin R, Makari S, Rapuano CJ. Tear film Osmolarity and dry eye disease: a review of the literature. Clin Ophthalmol. 2015;9:2039–47. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Erb C. Glaucoma and dry eye. 2012; pp 24–36.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Willshire C, Buckley RJ, Bron AJ. Estimating basal tear osmolarity in normal and dry eye subjects. Contact Lens Anterior Eye. 2018;41(1):34–46. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li N, Deng X-G, He M-F. Comparison of the Schirmer I test with and without topical anesthesia for diagnosing dry eye. Int J Ophthalmology. 2012b;5(4):478–81. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giedre Pakuliene
    • 1
  1. 1.Lithuanian University of Health ScienceKaunasLithuania

Personalised recommendations