Visual Field Loss in Glaucoma

  • Loreta KuzmieneEmail author


All forms of glaucoma has potentially progressing optic neuropathy that is associated with visual field loss as damage progresses and in which IOP is the key modifiable factor [1] Visual field defects reflect visual pathway abnormalities and should correlate with the anatomic arrangement of neurons in that pathway [2]. Nerve fibers from nasal and temporal retina enter the optic nerve. Nasal fibers are radial, temporal fibers are arcuate around the macula (central fixation point) and have superior and inferior parts. Damage of superior or/and inferior nerve fiber bundle appears as arcuate scotoma in superior or/and inferior visual field (Fig. 16.1). Focal loss appears as paracentral scotomas (Fig. 16.2), arcs or nasal steps (Fig. 16.3). Prolonged sparing of papilomacular bundle preserves the central vision (Fig. 16.4) [3].


  1. 1.
    Bowling B. Kanski’s clinical ophthalmology. A systematic approach. 8th ed; 2016.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stamper RL, Lieberman MF, Drake MV. Becker’s-Shaffer’s diagnosis and therapy of the Glaucomas: Elsevier; 2009.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hart WM, Becker B. The onset and evolution of glaucomatous visual field defects. Ophthalmology. 1982;89:268–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heijl A. Computerized perimetry in glaucoma management. Acta Ophthalmol. 1989;67:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Langerhost CT, van der Berg TJ, Greve EL. Is there general reduction of sensitivity in glaucoma? Int Ophthalmol. 1989;13:31–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Capriolli J. Automated perimetry in glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;111:235–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Terminology and guidelines for glaucoma. 4th ed. 2014.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heijl A, Patella VM, Bengtsson B. The field analyzer primer: effective perimetry. Carl Zeiss Meditec; 2012.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leske MC, Heijl A, Hyman L, Bengtsson B. Early manifest Glaucoma trial: design and baseline data. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(11):2144–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Demirel S, Johnson CA. Incidence and prevalence of short wavelength automated perimetry deficits in ocular hypertensive patients. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:709–15. figCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Eye Department of Lithuanian University of Health SciencesKaunasLithuania

Personalised recommendations