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Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Gut Tissue: Role of Intestinal Regeneration

  • Yasunao Numata
  • Daisuke Hirayama
  • Kohei Wagatsuma
  • Tomoya Iida
  • Hiroshi Nakase
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

Intestinal epithelial cells play a critical role in nutrient absorption as well as in protection against infection by pathogenic microorganisms. The cells drop out in a few days, and regeneration occurs subsequently; cells are eliminated by apoptosis. Clearance of dead cells frequently occurs in the intestinal tract, and apoptotic cells and phagocytes cooperate to facilitate cell clearance quickly and efficiently. The complex signaling network for cell clearance is well-understood. In recent years, the mechanism of programmed cell death accompanied by autophagy has been elucidated, and it has become clear that autophagy is involved in inflammation and intestinal tract diseases. In this review, we discuss intestinal regeneration and intestinal diseases through phagocytic clearance and autophagy of apoptotic cells.

Keywords

Intestinal epithelial cell Apoptosis Phagocytosis Find-me signal Eat-me signal Autophagy Autophagy gene 

Abbreviations

ATG16L1

Autophagy-related 16-like 1

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

C1q

Complement 1q

CD

Crohn’s disease

CD14

Cluster of differentiation 14

CD31

Cluster of differentiation 31

CD36

Cluster of differentiation 36

CD47

Cluster of differentiation 47

CD91

Cluster of differentiation 91

CX3CL1

Chemokine, CX3C motif, ligand 1

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

GTPase

Guanosinetriphosphatase

GWAS

Genome-wide association studies

ICAM3

Including intercellular adhesion molecule 3

IEL

Intraepithelial lymphocyte

LDL

Low density lipoprotein

LPC

Lysophosphatidylcholine

LRP1

Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1

MFGE8

Milk fat globule-EGF-factor 8

NOD2

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2

PtdSer

Phosphatidylserine

RGD

Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

S1P

Sphingosine-1-phosphate

TGF

Transforming growth factor

THP-1

Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein-1

TIM1

T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin containing protein-1

TIM4

T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin containing protein-4

UTP

Uridine triphosphate

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasunao Numata
    • 1
  • Daisuke Hirayama
    • 1
  • Kohei Wagatsuma
    • 1
  • Tomoya Iida
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Nakase
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologySapporo Medical University School of MedicineSapporoJapan

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