Stem Cells for Nerve and Muscle Repair: Harnessing Developmental Dynamics in Therapeutics

  • Satish Sasikumar
  • Ashima Bhan
  • T. K. Rajendra
Part of the Stem Cells in Clinical Applications book series (SCCA)


Complexity, developmental diversification, structure-function plasticity and their importance in maintenance and perpetuation of biological fitness highlight the seminal role played by the nervous system and its accessory organs in the evolution of life and societal complexity. Equally complex are the diseases and disorders of the nervous system affecting sensory, motor, and intellectual faculties of humans. While therapeutic options for neuronal disorders have to deal with the BBB, “one-size-fits-all” paradigm does not work in therapeutics given the complex biochemical diversity of various neuronal cell types and their developmental origin. In contrast to classical therapeutics that have not evolved a cure for any major disorder, stem cell technology has generated both hype and hope. While replenishing lost neurons responsible for memory disorders would not bring back old memory, no technology is available to replace a lost motoneuron either by enticing the stem cell-derived neuron to extend its axon in the direction towards its target or directly transplanting a giant neuron from the spinal cord to the target. In spite of these limitations, there are great strides made in stem cell therapeutics for the diseases and disorders of neurons and muscle, be it the delivery mode bypassing the BBB, direct stem cell transplantation for replacement therapy or stem cell-mediated specific cargo delivery to affected neuronal or muscle cell types. Future of stem cell therapeutics for the diseases and disorders of the nerve and the muscle depends heavily on our understanding of developmental biology at the molecular level and the role played by model organisms in elucidating disease mechanisms.


Development Differentiation Drug screen Diseases of nerve and muscle Extracellular vesicles Mitochondria Neuro-musculature Plasticity Stem cell therapy Trans-differentiation 



Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


Blood brain barrier


Cluster of differentiation


Central nervous system


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats


Duchenne muscular dystrophy


Deoxyribonucleic acid


Enteric nervous system

ES cells

Embryonic stem cells


Extracellular vesicles


Hormone replacement therapies




Induced pluripotent stem cell(s)




Lysosomal storage disorders




Middle cerebral artery occlusion


Muscle-derived stem cells


Mouse embryonic fibroblasts




Muscle progenitor cells


Mesenchymal stem cells


Myogenic factor 5


Myoblast determination protein


Neuromuscular diseases/disorders


Neural progenitor cells


Neural stem cells


Neural stem/progenitor cells


PW1+ interstitial cells


Rest, ice/cold, compression and elevation


Ribonucleic acid


RNA interference


Spinal muscular atrophy


Sry-related High Mobility Group (HMG) box


Side population


Sex determining region Y (present on the Y chromosome)


Subventricular zone





Authors duly acknowledge the help and encouragement from Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pimpri, Pune, India.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satish Sasikumar
    • 1
  • Ashima Bhan
    • 1
  • T. K. Rajendra
    • 1
  1. 1.Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil VidyapeethPuneIndia

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