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Materials-Based Solutions to Solar Energy System

  • Colin Tong
Chapter

Abstract

Solar energy is the cleanest and most abundant renewable energy source available in the world. This energy can be harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies, such as photovoltaics (PV), concentrating photovoltaics (CPV), concentrating solar power (CSP), solar thermal, and artificial photosynthesis. Materials-based solutions have been widely explored to improve and renew solar energy systems. Solar energy materials are used to harness the sun’s energy with special properties adapted and tuned so that they can absorb, reflect, transmit, or emit light and other electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength ranges for thermal, solar, and visible radiation. PV directly converts sunlight into electrical power. The growth of PV has been driven by lower costs due to increased efficiency, primarily from advances in PV materials mainly including crystalline silicon; thin films such as cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS), or amorphous silicon (a-Si); multifunction systems with solar concentrators; and organic flexible molecular, polymeric, or nanoparticle-based cells. The superior optical, electric, and chemical properties of nanomaterials lead to the development of quantum well, quantum dot, dye sensitized, and organic solar cells. CSP uses reflectors to concentrate sunlight to generate high temperatures to heat fluids that drive steam turbines to produce utility-scale electric power. Materials research for CSP has been focused on improving optical materials for reflectors with greater durability and low cost; enhancing absorber materials and coatings with higher solar absorbance and low thermal emittance; develop thermal energy storage materials with improved heat capacity; and improve corrosion resistance of materials in contact with fluids like molten salts. Exceedingly, solar power has a vast resource base and incredible technical potential. Materials science and engineering offers the potential to significantly increase the amount of electricity generated from solar energy. This chapter will provide a brief review on the advanced materials solutions to various solar energy systems.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colin Tong
    • 1
  1. 1.ChicagoUSA

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