Advanced Materials Enable Energy Production from Fossil Fuels

  • Colin Tong


Development of advanced materials and processes are vital to higher production efficiency and more economical and environmentally sustainable fossil energy systems. There is a need for the discovery of new materials that can withstand higher temperature and severe corrosive environments of the advanced fossil-fueled power generation technologies such as coal gasifiers, turbines, combustors, and coal-based fuel cells. Whether the fuel is converted to electricity in a combined cycle gas turbine or a boiler/steam turbine system, both systems produce higher efficiencies when operated at higher temperatures. Significant efforts have resulted in advanced materials for use in both gas turbines and boiler/steam turbine equipment. Coatings applied to hot components in gas turbines have allowed higher operating temperatures, thereby resulting in efficiency improvements. Advances in materials have also resulted in significant improvements in the overall efficiency of converting the energy in the fuel to electricity. Through the development of advanced coatings and new methods of applying the coatings as well as new materials, significant reductions in fuel consumption with an associated reduction in greenhouse gas and other criteria pollutant emissions have been realized. This chapter will focus on how to overcome materials challenges that are being actively pursued to achieve sustainable fossil energy systems, including ultra-supercritical materials, coatings and protection materials, high-strength and corrosion-resistant alloys, functional materials, as well as sensing materials used in harsh environments.


  1. Allen, D.J.: Materials UK Energy Review Report 2-fossil-fueled power generation. (2007). Accepted 3 Sept 2013
  2. Amagasa, S., Shimomura, K., Kadowaki, M., Takeishi, K., Kawai, H., Aoki, S., Aoyama, K.: Study on the turbine vane and blade for a 1500 °C class industrial gas turbine. J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power. 116, 597–604 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashby, M., et al.: Materials Engineering, Science, Processing and Design. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (2007)Google Scholar
  4. Baker, M., Fessler, R.R.: Pipeline Corrosion Final Report. U.S. DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. (2008). Accessed 21 June 2017
  5. Bennett, J.P., Kwong, K.S.: Refractory liner materials used in slagging gasifiers. Refract. Appl. News. 9(5), 20–25 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, J.P., Kwong, K.S.: failure mechanisms in high chrome oxide gasifier refractories. Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 42A, 888–904 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brandt, M., Sun, S., Alam, N., Bendeich, P., Bishop, A.: Laser cladding repair of turbine blades in power plants: from research to commercialization. Int. Heat Treat. Surface Eng. 3(3), 105–114 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carniglia, S.C., Barna, G.L.: Handbook of Industrial Refractories Technology—Principles,Types, Properties and Applications. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ (1992)Google Scholar
  9. Carter, T.J.: Common failures in gas turbine blades. Eng. Failure Anal. 12(2005), 237–247 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clarke, D.R.: Thermal-barrier coatings for more efficient gas-turbine engines. MRS Bullet. 37, 891–901 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clarke, D.R., Oechsner, M., Padture, N.P.: Thermal-barrier coatings for more efficient gas-turbine engines. MRS Bullet. 37(10), 891–898 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Conklin, J.C., Szybist, J.P.: A highly efficient six-stroke internal combustion engine cycle with water injection for in-cylinder exhaust heat recovery. Energy. 35, 1658–1664 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Craig, B.: Materials for deep oil and gas well construction. Adv. Mater. Processes. 5, 33–35 (2008)Google Scholar
  14. Cruchley, S., Evans, H., Taylor, M.: An overview of the oxidation of Ni-based superalloys for turbine disc applications: surface condition, applied load and mechanical performance. Materials at High Temperatures (2016)Google Scholar
  15. Culley, D., et al.: More intelligent gas turbine engines. RTO TECHNICAL REPORT TR-AVT-128. (2009). Accessed 8 Feb 2014
  16. Danielsen, H.K., Somers, M.A.J., Hald, J.: Z-phase in 9–12% Cr Steels. Kgs. Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby, Denmark (2007)Google Scholar
  17. DOE: How coal gasification power plants work. (2013). Accessed 7 Nov 2013
  18. Eskner, M.: Mechanical Behavior of Gas Turbine Coatings. PhD dissertation. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden (2004)Google Scholar
  19. Gibbons, T.B., Wright, I.G.: A Review of Materials for Gas Turbines Firing Syngas Fuels. ORNL/TM-2009/137. (2007). Accessed 26 June 2017
  20. Hendricks, R.C., Chupp, R.E., Lattime, S.B., Steinetz, B.M.: Turbomachine interface sealing. In: International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films sponsored by the AVS Science & Technology San Diego, California, May 2–6, 2005. (2005). Accessed 16 May 2017
  21. Hirata, A., et al.: Atomic structure of nanoclusters in oxide-dispersion-strengthened steels. Nat. Mat. 10, 922–926 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jackson, R.B., Down, A., Phillips, N.G., Ackley, R.C., Cook, C.W., Plata, D.L., Zhao, K.: Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 2051–2058 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kern, T.-U.: Using creep-resistant steels in turbines. In: Abe, F., Kern, T.-U., Viswanathan, R. (eds.) Creep-resistant steels. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2008)Google Scholar
  24. Lahey, P.: Use of composite materials in the transportation of natural gas. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. (2002). Accessed 21 June 2017
  25. Leslie, J.C.: Composite drill pipe for extended-reach and deep water applications. (2013). Accessed on 22 Dec 2013Google Scholar
  26. Leunga, D.Y.C., Caramanna, G., Maroto-Valerb, M.M.: An overview of current status of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 39, 426–443 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lothongkum, G., Khuanlieng, W., Homkrajai, W., Wangyao, P.: Effect of aging on stress relaxation of Inconel X-750 bolt at 923 and 1023 K [J]. High Temp. Mater. Processes. 25(4), 175–185 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lukaszewicz, M.: Steam oxidation of advanced high temperature resistant alloys for ultra-supercritical applications. PhD dissertation. Cranfield University, Bedford, UK (2012)Google Scholar
  29. Maley, S.M., Romanosky, R.R.: Sensors for fossil energy applications in harsh environments. In: IMCS 2012—The 14th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors, 2012-05-20–2012-05-23, pp. 60–63. Nürnberg/Nuremberg, Germany (2012)Google Scholar
  30. Mukherji, D., Rosler, J., Strunz, P., Gilles, R., Schumacher, G., Piegert, S.: Beyond Ni-based superalloys: development of CoRe-based alloys for gas turbine applications at very high temperatures. Int. J. Mater. Res. 102, 1125–1132 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nicol, K.: Status of advanced ultra-supercritical pulverized coal technology. ISBN 978–92–9029-549-5. (2013). Accessed 12 May 2017
  32. Oakey, J., Fry, T.: MatUK energy materials review-R&D priorities for gasification technologies. (2007). Accessed 11 June 2013
  33. Oakey, J.E., et al.: Review of status of advanced materials for power generation. Report No. COAL R224, DTI/Pub URN 02/1509. (2003a). Accessed 23 Oct 2013
  34. Oakey, J.E., et al.: Review of status of advanced materials for power generation. (2003b). Accessed 19 Dec 2013
  35. PCC: Customized product and material solution for aerospace and power generation. (2013). Accessed 12 Oct 2013
  36. Penfield, Jr. S., Rittenhouse, P.: Evaluation of coatings to prevent diffusion of fission products into gas reactor turbomachine blades. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2004. 1009381 (2004)Google Scholar
  37. Pimentel, G., et al.: Advanced FeCrAl ODS steels for high-temperature structural applications in energy generation systems. Resista Metal. 48(4), 303–316 (2012)Google Scholar
  38. Rautio, R., Bruce, S.: Alloy for ultrasupercritical coal fired boilers. Adv. Mater. Processes. 4, 35–37 (2008)Google Scholar
  39. Rayes, M.M.E., et al.: Erosion-corrosion of cermet coating. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 8, 1117–1137 (2013)Google Scholar
  40. Reed, R.C.: The Superalloys. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Romanosky, R.R.: Development of harsh environment sensor platform for fossil energy applications. (2008). Accessed 18 Sept 2013
  42. Romanosky, R., Rawls, P.: Advanced research materials program. National Energy Technology Laboratory. (2013). Accessed 20 Sept 2013
  43. Service RF: Goodbye smokestacks: Startup invents zero-emission fossil fuel power. (2017). Accessed 23 June 2017
  44. Siebert M: Additive Manufacturing—Breakthrough with 3D printed Gas Turbine Blades. Pictures of the Future—The Magazine for Research and Innovation (6 February 2017). (2017). Accessed 21 June 2017
  45. Sonntag, R.E., Borgnakke, C.: Introduction to Engineering Thermodynamics. Wiley, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  46. Tsuji, et al.: Development of heat resisting steel for high, low pressure steam turbine mono-block rotor. Metals Technol. 62(11), 64 (1992)Google Scholar
  47. Viswanathan, R., et al.: Materials for ultra-supercritical coal-fired power plant boilers. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Regional Conference on Energy Technology Towards a Clean Environment, 12–14 February 2003, Phuket, Thailand (2003)Google Scholar
  48. Viswanathan, R., Shingledecker, J., Purgert, R.: Evaluating Materials Technology for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Coal-Fired Plants. Power, 1 August 2010. (2010). Accessed 20 June 2017
  49. Watson, J., et al.: Technology and carbon mitigation in developing countries: Are cleaner coal technologies a viable option? Background Paper for Human Development Report 2007. (2007). Accessed 22 Oct 2013
  50. West, M.K.: Processing and characterization of oxide dispersion strengthened 14YWT ferritic Alloys. PhD dissertation. University of Tennessee, Knoxville (2006)Google Scholar
  51. Wright, I., et al.: Overview of ODS alloy development. (2005). Accessed 18 Oct 2013
  52. Wu, Q.: Microstructural evolution in advanced boiler materials for ultra-supercritical coal power plants. PhD dissertation. University of Cincinnati (2006)Google Scholar
  53. Wu, W.: Development and characterization of novel low-friction wear-resistant multilayer nanocomposite CrAlTiCN coatings. PhD dissertation. The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK (2010)Google Scholar
  54. Xie, X., Wu, Y., Chi, C., Zhang, M: Superalloys for Advanced Ultra-Super-Critical Fossil Power Plant Application, Superalloys, Dr. Mahmood Aliofkhazraei (Ed.), InTech, doi: (2015). Accessed 21 June 2017
  55. Xu, Y., Wu, X., Guo, X., Kong, B., Zhang, M., Qian, X., Mi, S., Sun, W.: The boom in 3D-printed sensor technology. Sensors. 17, 1166 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yamamoto, Y., et al.: Overview of strategies for high-temperature creep and oxidation resistance of alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels. Metall. Mater. Trans. 42A, 922–931 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yang, Y.: Development of a nano-composite coating technology for improvement of carbon steel pipe to erosion-corrosion in oil sands slurry. PhD dissertation University of Calgary, Alberta (2013)Google Scholar
  58. Zhu, Q.: High temperature syngas coolers. IEA Clean Coal Centre. ISBN 978–92–9029-580-8. (2015). Accessed 21 May 2017

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colin Tong
    • 1
  1. 1.ChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations