• Stephen J. Peterson


Gladstone was a towering transatlantic figure and became a flashpoint in the American press for issues related to modernity in both religion and politics. Four principal conclusions may be drawn about their views on American democracy and about the convergence of modern theological liberalism and Christianity: (1) Gladstone symbolized a new Anglo-American rapprochement, the primary engine, they believed, of modern progress; (2) liberal democracy and separation of church and state were essential to their American identity; (3) the New Learning and agnosticism were gaining increased acceptance in American intellectual life, thus splintering Christians; (4) conservative Christianity was still well entrenched in American life with evangelicals foreshadowing the anti-intellectualism of twentieth-century fundamentalists and conservative culture warriors.

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© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen J. Peterson
    • 1
  1. 1.Tulsa Community CollegeTulsaUSA

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