Anatomy and Variations of the Floor of the Maxillary Sinus

  • Katsuichiro Maruo
  • Charlotte Wilson
  • Joe Iwanaga


The maxillary sinus is one of the paranasal sinuses along with the frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses. It is located above the apical roots of the maxillary molars and is an important structure in fields such as endodontics, implant dentistry, and oral surgery. In planning for dental implant treatment, the distance between the alveolar ridge and the sinus floor, the existence of pathological features, and the septum in the maxillary sinus are of great importance. For example, a periapical lesion or penetration of the sinus floor membrane after tooth extraction can cause maxillary sinusitis. In this chapter, the anatomy, structure, and variations of the maxillary sinus are reviewed, and the sinus floor elevation procedure is introduced.


  1. Al-Faraje L, Church C, Rathburn A (2013) Surgical and radiologic anatomy for oral implantology. Quintessence Publishing, Hanover Park, ILGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey BJ, Johnson JT, Newlands SD (2006) Head & neck surgery—otolaryngology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  3. Cakur B, Sümbüllü MA, Durna D (2013) Relationship among Schneiderian membrane, Underwood’s septa, and the maxillary sinus inferior border. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 15:83–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eggesbø HB (2006) Radiological imaging of inflammatory lesions in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Euro Radiol 16:872–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hauman CHJ, Chandler NP, Tong DC (2002) Endodontic implications of the maxillary sinus: a review. Int Endod J 35:127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Keir J (2009) Why do we have paranasal sinuses? J Laryngol Otol 123:4–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kim M-J, Jung U-W, Kim C-S et al (2006) Maxillary sinus septa: prevalence, height, location, and morphology. A reformatted computed tomography scan analysis. J Periodontol 77:903–908. Scholar
  8. Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska D, Kociemba W, Rewekant A et al (2015) Development of the maxillary sinus from birth to age 18. Postnatal growth pattern. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 79:1393–1400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. McGowan DA, Baxter PW, James J (1993) The maxillary sinus and its dental implications. John Wright, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. Pjetursson BE, Lang NP (2014) Sinus floor elevation utilizing the transalveolar approach. Periodontol 2000 66:59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ulm CW, Solar P, Krennmair G et al (1995) Incidence and suggested surgical management of septa in sinus-lift procedures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 10:462–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Underwood AS (1910) An inquiry into the anatomy and pathology of the maxillary sinus. J Anat Physiol 44:354–369PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. van den Bergh JP, ten Bruggenkate CM, Disch FJ et al (2000) Anatomical aspects of sinus floor elevations. Clin Oral Impl Res 11:256–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Velásquez-Plata D, Hovey LR, Peach CC et al (2002) Maxillary sinus septa: a 3-dimensional computerized tomographic scan analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 17(6):854–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Wehrbein H, Diedrich P (1992) The initial morphological state in the basally pneumatized maxillary sinus--a radiological-histological study in man. Fortschr Kieferorthop 53:254–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katsuichiro Maruo
    • 1
  • Charlotte Wilson
    • 2
  • Joe Iwanaga
    • 3
  1. 1.Sangenjaya Maruo Dental ClinicSetagaya-kuJapan
  2. 2.University of ColoradoDenverUSA
  3. 3.Seattle Science FoundationSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations