Anatomical Issues Related to Endodontics

  • Charles S. SolomonEmail author
  • Sahng G. Kim


Anatomical issues play a very crucial role in the everyday practice of endodontics. Rather than be a subject to be endured and soon forgotten in dental school, an understanding of anatomy is critical to the endodontist, both in reaching the proper diagnosis and then in executing the proper techniques to reach the most successful outcomes.


  1. Burch JG, Hulen S (1974) A study of the presence of accessory foramina and the topography of molar furcations. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path 38:451–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chávez de Paz LE, Bergenholtz G, Dahlén G et al (2007) Response to alkaline stress by root canal bacteria in biofilms. Int Endod J 40:344–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. De Deus QD (1975) Frequency, location, and direction of the lateral, secondary, and accessory canals. J Endod 1:361–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Donoff RB, Colin W (1990) Neurologic complications of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin 2:453–462Google Scholar
  5. Flynn TR (1994) Anatomy and surgery of deep fascial space infections of the head and neck. In: JPW K (ed) OMS knowledge update, vol 1. Rosemont IL, AAOMS, p 104Google Scholar
  6. Freedman A, Horowitz I (1999) Complications after apicoectomy in maxillary premolar and molar teeth. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 28:192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gekelman D, Ramamurthy R, Mirfarsi S et al (2009) Rotary nickel-titanium GT and ProTaper files for root canal shaping by novice operators: a radiographic and micro-computed tomography evaluation. J Endod 35:1584–1588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hauman CH, Chandler NP, Tong DC (2002) Endodontic implications of the maxillary sinus: a review. Int Endod J 35:127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hulsmann M, Heckendorff M, Lennon A (2003) Chelating agents in root canal treatment: mode of action and indications for their use. Int Endod J 36:810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Izzo SR, Lazow SK (2001) Early diagnosis and surgical management of necrotizing fasciitis, mediastinitis, and brain abscess. In: Piecuch JF (ed) OMS knowledge update, vol 3. AAOMS, Rosemont, IL, p 102Google Scholar
  11. Jarrett IS, Marx D, Covey D et al (2004) Percentage of canals filled in apical cross sections—an in vitro study of seven obturation techniques. Int Endod J 37:392–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Katebzadeh N, Sigurdsson A, Trope M (2000) Radiographic evaluation of periapical healing after obturation of infected root canals: an in vivo study. Int Endod J 33:60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kitagawa N, Oda M, Totoki T (2004) Possible mechanism of irreversible nerve injury caused by local anesthetics: detergent properties of local anesthetics and membrane disruption. Anesthesiology 100:962–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kuttler Y (1955) Microscopic investigation of root apexes. J Am Dent Assoc 50:544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lacerda MFLS, Marceliano-Alves MF, Pérez AR et al (2017) Cleaning and shaping oval canals with 3 instrumentation systems: a correlative micro-computed tomographic and histologic study. J Endod 43(11):1878–1884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lazow SK (2000) Necrotizing fasciitis and mediastinitis. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 8:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lim KC, Webber J (1985) The effect of root canal preparation on the shape of the curved root canal. Int Endod J 18:233–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mohammadi Z (2008) Sodium hypochlorite in endodontics: an update review. Int Dent J 58:329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Moiseiwitsch JR (1995) Avoiding the mental foramen during periapical surgery. J Endod 21:340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moore PA, Haas DA (2010) Paresthesias in dentistry. Dent Clin N Am 54:715–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ogle OE, Mahjoubi G (2012) Local anesthesia: agents, techniques, and complications. Dent Clin N Am 56:133–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pogrel MA (2002) The results of microneurosurgery of the inferior alveolar and lingual nerve. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 60:485–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pogrel MA (2007) Damage to the inferior alveolar nerve as the result of root canal therapy. JADA 138:65–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Pogrel MA, Thamby S (2000) Permanent nerve involvement resulting from inferior alveolar nerve blocks. JADA 131:901–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Pogrel MA, Schmidt BL, Sambajon V (2003) Lingual nerve damage due to inferior alveolar nerve blocks. JADA 134:195–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ponce EH, Vilar Fernandez JA (2003) The cemento-dentino-canal junction, the apical foramen, and the apical constriction: evaluation by optical microscopy. J Endod 29:214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ratanajirasut R, Panichuttra A, Panmekiate S (2018) A cone-beam computed tomographic study of root and canal morphology of maxillary first and second permanent molars in a Thai population. J Endod 44:56–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ricucci D (1998) Apical limit of root canal instrumentation and obturation, part 1. Literature review. Int Endod J 31:384–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ricucci D, Siqueira JF Jr, Bate AL et al (2009) Histologic investigation of root canal-treated teeth with apical periodontitis: a retrospective study from twenty-four patients. J Endod 35:493–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rud J, Rud V (1998) Surgical endodontics of upper molars: relation to the maxillary sinus and operation in acute state of infection. J Endod 24:260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sjogren U, Figdor D, Spangberg L, Sundqvist G (1991) The antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as a short- term intracanal dressing. Int Endod J 24:119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vallerand WP (1992) Peripheral trigeminal nerve injuries. N Y State Dent J 8:27–30Google Scholar
  33. Vertucci FJ (1984) Root canal anatomy of the human permanent teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 58:589–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vieira AR, Siqueira JF Jr, Ricucci D et al (2012) Dentinal tubule infection as the cause of recurrent disease and late endodontic treatment failure: a case report. J Endod 38:250–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Watzek G, Bernhart T, Ulm C (1997) Complications of sinus perforations and their management in endodontics. Dent Clin N Am 41:563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Yang Y, Shen Y, Wang Z et al (2016) Evaluation of the susceptibility of multispecies biofilms in dentinal tubules to disinfecting solutions. J Endod 42(8):1246–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of EndodonticsColumbia University College of Dental MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations