Anatomical Variations from the Point of View of the Periodontist

  • Daniel E. ShinEmail author


Periodontal surgery encompasses a wide range of surgical therapies that are designed to restore and regenerate the natural form and function to lost and damaged structures of the teeth. Common types of periodontal surgical therapies include, but are not limited to, open flap debridement, osseous resective surgery, guided tissue regeneration (GTR), and soft tissue augmentation. It is important for a periodontist to have sound clinical judgment and proficient skills to perform the aforementioned surgical procedures, but it is equally important for the periodontist to have a keen anatomical mind with the means to appreciate the subtle nuances or the overt and pronounced anatomical variations that lie in the vicinity of the periodontal surgical field. Furthermore, it is important for the periodontist to anticipate these anatomical variations and the role they may play in determining the scope of the planned surgical procedure. Thus, in order to safely and properly execute the surgical procedure, the periodontist must have a strong understanding of the precise location of anatomical structures but also be aware of variations with respect to size, shape, and location of vital oral anatomical structures and landmarks. The focus of this chapter is to highlight common variations in anatomical oral structures, which are regularly encountered in periodontal surgery and implant surgery. The reader is referred to subsequent chapters in this textbook for a more in-depth description of these anatomical structures and landmarks.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PeriodonticsIndiana University School of DentistryIndianapolisUSA

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