Anatomy and Variations of the Incisive Foramen

  • Iwona M. Tomaszewska
  • Patrick Popieluszko
  • Krzysztof A. Tomaszewski
  • Jerzy A. Walocha


The incisive foramen is the distal opening of the incisive canal and an important structure to consider during dental implant, cystectomy of radicular and nasopalatine cysts, and extraction of supernumerary mesiodens. It serves as the exit point for the nasopalatine nerve and sphenopalatine artery. Being aware of the structure and its possible variations helps surgeons operating in the area to avoid injuring the neurovascular bundle and to direct local anesthesia appropriately. There have been several studies of the variations and their implications.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iwona M. Tomaszewska
    • 1
  • Patrick Popieluszko
    • 1
  • Krzysztof A. Tomaszewski
    • 1
  • Jerzy A. Walocha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyJagiellonian University Medical CollegeKrakowPoland

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