Anatomy and Variations of the Greater Palatine Foramen

  • Iwona M. Tomaszewska
  • Patrick Popieluszko
  • Krzysztof A. Tomaszewski
  • Jerzy A. Walocha


The greater palatine foramen (GPF) is one of the most important neurovascular carrying ports in the oral cavity. It is formed between the maxilla and palatine bone. The neurovascular bundle carries sensation and circulation to the gums, palate, and nasal cavity. Whether a surgeon is looking to prevent iatrogenic injury or aiming to provide hemostasis or anesthesia via this neurovasculature, knowledge of the exact location and possible anatomical variations of the GPF are vital for success. It is therefore particularly important for maxillofacial surgeries, periodontal procedures, local anesthesia, and hemostasis even beyond the scope of surgery. In this chapter, we review the normal anatomy of the foramen and the most common variants and discuss the clinical importance of the GPF and the associated greater palatine canal.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iwona M. Tomaszewska
    • 1
  • Patrick Popieluszko
    • 1
  • Krzysztof A. Tomaszewski
    • 1
  • Jerzy A. Walocha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyJagiellonian University Medical CollegeKrakowPoland

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