The Cervicothoracic Junction

  • Anthony M. DiGiorgio
  • Michael S. Virk
  • Ming-Hsiao Hu
  • Mohanad Alazzeh
  • Santan Thottempudi
  • Praveen V. Mummaneni


The cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) serves as the interface between the flexible, lordotic cervical spine and the more rigid, kyphotic thoracic spine. It is comprised of the C7 and T1 vertebrae and the intervening discs, ribs, and spanning ligaments. The varying anatomy and load-bearing properties of these two spine regions require careful consideration. The transition from the mobile cervical spine to immobile thoracic spine exposes the CTJ to large forces, making it susceptible to trauma and requiring unique biomechanical considerations when planning stabilization constructs.


Cervicothoracic junction CTJ Posterior approach crossing the CTJ Anterior approach crossing the CTJ 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony M. DiGiorgio
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael S. Virk
    • 3
  • Ming-Hsiao Hu
    • 4
    • 5
  • Mohanad Alazzeh
    • 6
  • Santan Thottempudi
    • 6
  • Praveen V. Mummaneni
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurological SurgeryLouisiana State University Health Sciences CenterNew OrleansUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and College of EngineeringNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  5. 5.Department of OrthopedicsNational Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  6. 6.University of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

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