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Anatomy and Physiology-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Hydrocephalus

  • Smruti K. Patel
  • Shawn M. Vuong
  • Weihong Yuan
  • Francesco T. Mangano
Chapter

Abstract

The development of advanced neuroimaging techniques over the past several decades has served a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus. The latest evidence from both human and animal research suggests that one of the major pathophysiological mechanisms underlying poor outcomes in these patients is damage to vulnerable white matter structures in the brain due to ventricular enlargement and increased intracranial pressure. However, a clear understanding of these white matter abnormalities and their implications on neurobehavioral outcomes in this patient population is not well understood. To this end, magnetic resonance techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging, probabilistic diffusion tractography, and elastography, to name a few, have recently been studied to assess noninvasive quantification of these abnormalities and the biomechanics of brain tissue. Our chapter examines the evolution of magnetic resonance neuroimaging technology in hydrocephalus. We particularly focus on the use of anatomy and physiology-based imaging techniques and diffusion tensor imaging which are supported by a growing body of literature as promising noninvasive tools in the diagnosis and long-term management. We conclude with a brief discussion on more novel, emerging techniques such as magnetic resonance elastography and experimental imaging such as synthetic magnetic resonance imaging.

Keywords

pediatric hydrocephalus benign external hydrocephalus normal pressure hydrocephalus magnetic resonance imaging phase contrast MRI 3D-CISS diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy white matter injury MR elastography synthetic MRI 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Smruti K. Patel
    • 1
  • Shawn M. Vuong
    • 1
  • Weihong Yuan
    • 2
  • Francesco T. Mangano
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

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