Biodegradation of Textile Azo Dyes

  • Veena Sreedharan
  • Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 22)


Azo dyes are known as industrially synthesized organic compounds, and these azo dyes are identified by their azo bonds (N=N). Mixtures of these synthetic dyes which are unbound to the fiber get released into the environment and that will ultimately lead to bioaccumulation. Bioaccumulation of these dyes constitutes a serious environmental hazard. Several physicochemical methods have been applied to the treatment of textile wastewater, but these methods have many limitations due to high cost, low efficiency, and secondary pollution problems. As an alternative to physicochemical methods, biological methods comprise bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae, and plants and their enzymes which received increasing interest due to their cost-effectiveness and eco-friendly nature.

Decolorization of toxic azo dyes by biological processes may take place either by biodegradation or biosorption. A variety of oxidative and reductive microbial enzymes may also be involved in the degradation of dyes. Azoreductase, peroxidase, laccase, and other important enzymes synthesized by these microbes have shown 80–90% efficacy in decolorizing the textile dyes. Green synthesis of nanoparticles and their mediated azo dye degradation are the latest and effective methods used for treatment of hazards effluent samples. Toxicity evaluation of pure dyes and degraded dye product using phytotoxicity and biotoxicity study is given a clear chart of the most effective methods This review provides an overview of decolorization and degradation of azo dyes by biological processes and establishes the fact that these Microbes and enzymes are significantly effective biological weapons against the toxic azo dyes.


Azo dyes Biodegradation Azoreductase Peroxidases Laccase Nanoparticles Photocatalytic activity Toxicity study 



Authors are very thankful to the management of VIT University and CSIR Delhi, India, for supporting this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veena Sreedharan
    • 1
  • Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao
    • 1
  1. 1.Molecular and Microbiology Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Bio Sciences and TechnologyVIT UniversityVelloreIndia

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