Advertisement

Microalgae for Biodiesel Production and Pharmaceutical Removal from Water

  • Carlos Escudero-OñateEmail author
  • Laura Ferrando-Climent
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 22)

Abstract

During the past 20 years, the presence of pharmaceutical active compounds in water bodies has been gaining increasing attention, and nowadays there is broad acknowledgement that they should be considered an emerging environmental problem. The existing scientific literature clearly points out that pharmaceuticals enter the environment and provoke adverse effects. The main source of these compounds is wastewater, since, after intake, the pharmaceutical compounds are absorbed, metabolized, and finally excreted into the sewerage system. Although wastewater is normally collected and delivered to treatment plants, it has been demonstrated that the regular treatments applied in such facilities are not completely effective for removal of a variety of pharmaceuticals, which are subsequently introduced into the environment.

Microalgae can play a relevant role in remediation of wastewater. In addition to their well-known capacity to remove organic carbon, nutrients, and even heavy metals from water, microalgae have recently been revealed to have significant potential to remove pharmaceutical compounds from polluted effluents. Microalgae offer a further benefit to close the mass-to-energy loop, since their content of carbohydrates and oils allows them to be considered as a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels.

In this chapter, the authors review the potential of microalgae to remove contaminants of emerging concern from water, paying special attention to pharmaceutical compounds. The immobilization techniques that can be used to facilitate the harvesting process and valorization of the biomass for the production of biodiesel are also assessed.

Keywords

Microalgae Pharmaceutical active compounds Wastewater Entrapment Immobilization Liquid biofuels Biodiesel 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was financially supported through the NordForsk Nordic Center of Excellence NordAqua program (project number 82845).

References

  1. Abdel-Raouf N, Al-Homaidan AA, Ibraheem IB (2012) Microalgae and wastewater treatment. Saudi J Biol Sci 19(3):257–275.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2012.04.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abe K, Matsumura I, Imamaki A, Hirano M (2003) Removal of inorganic nitrogen sources from water by the algal biofilm of the aerial microalga Trentepohlia aurea. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 19(3):325–328.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1023657310004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aga DS (ed) (2008) Fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment and in water treatment systems. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  4. Amaro HM, Macedo ÂC, Malcata FX (2012) Microalgae: an alternative as sustainable source of biofuels? Energy 44(1):158–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arbib Z, Ruiz J, Álvarez-Díaz P, Garrido-Pérez C, Perales JA (2014) Capability of different microalgae species for phytoremediation processes: wastewater tertiary treatment, CO2 bio-fixation and low cost biofuels production. Water Res 49:465–474.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.10.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azma M, Mohamed MS, Mohamad R, Rahim RA, Ariff AB (2011) Improvement of medium composition for heterotrophic cultivation of green microalgae, Tetraselmis suecica, using response surface methodology. Biochem Eng J 53(2):187–195.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2010.10.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bahadar A, Bilal Khan M (2013) Progress in energy from microalgae: a review. Ren Sust En Rev 27:128–148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.06.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barceló D, Petrovic M (2007) Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment. Anal Bioanal Chem 387(4):1141–1142.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-006-1012-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barceló D, Petrovic M (2008) Emerging contaminants from industrial and municipal waste: removal technologies, The handbook of environmental chemistry, vol. 5. Springer, Berlin.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79210-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bayramoğlu G, Tuzun I, Celik I, Yilmaz M, Arica MY (2006) Biosorption of mercury(II), cadmium(II) and lead(II) ions from aqueous system by microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii immobilized in alginate beads. Int J Miner Process 81(1):35–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.minpro.2006.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Behzadi S, Farid MM (2007) Review: examining the use of different feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Asia Pac J Chem Eng 2(5):480–486.  https://doi.org/10.1002/apj.85 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanco A, Sanz B, Llama MJ, Serra JL (1999) Biosorption of heavy metals to immobilised Phormidium laminosum biomass. J Biotechnol 69(2–3):227–240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1656(99)00046-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boonma S, Chaiklangmuang S, Chaiwongsar S, Pekkoh J, Pumas C, Ungsethaphand T, Tongsiri D, Peerapornpisal Y (2015) Enhanced carbon dioxide fixation and bio-oil production of a microalgal consortium. Clean: Soil, Air, Water 43(5):761–766.  https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201400171 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boxall AB, Rudd MA, Brooks BW, Caldwell DJ, Choi K, Hickmann S, Innes E, Ostapyk K, Staveley JP, Verslycke T, Ankley GT, Beazley KF, Belanger SE, Berninger JP, Carriquiriborde P, Coors A, Deleo PC, Dyer SD, Ericson JF, Gagné F, Giesy JP, Gouin T, Hallstrom L, Karlsson MV, Larsson DG, Lazorchak JM, Mastrocco F, McLaughlin A, McMaster ME, Meyerhoff RD, Moore R, Parrott JL, Snape JR, Murray-Smith R, Servos MR, Sibley PK, Straub JO, Szabo ND, Topp E, Tetreault GR, Trudeau VL, Van Der Kraak G (2012) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: what are the big questions? Environ Health Perspect 120(9):1221–1229.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104477 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bozbas K (2008) Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: production and policies in the European Union. Ren Sust En Rev 12(2):542–552.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2005.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brennan L, Owende P (2010) Biofuels from microalgae—a review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14(2):557–577.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cañizares RO, Domínguez AR, Rivas L, Montes MC, Travieso L, Benítez F (1993) Free and immobilized cultures of Spirulina maxima for swine waste treatment. Biotechnol Lett 15(3):321–326.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00128327 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen CY, Yeh KL, Aisyah R, Lee DJ, Chang JS (2011) Cultivation, photobioreactor design and harvesting of microalgae for biodiesel production: a critical review. Bioresour Technol 102(1):71–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen CY, Chang JS, Chang HY, Chen TY, Wu JH, Lee WL (2013) Enhancing microalgal oil/lipid production from Chlorella sorokiniana CY1 using deep-sea water supplemented cultivation medium. Biochem Eng J 77:74–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2013.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheng Y, Zhou W, Gao C, Lan K, Gao Y, Wu Q (2009) Biodiesel production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber by heterotrophic microalgae Chlorella protothecoides. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84(5):777–781.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.2111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chevalier P, de la Noüe J (1985) Wastewater nutrient removal with microalgae immobilized in carrageenan. Enzym Microb Technol 7(12):621–624.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(85)90032-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chisti Y (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 25(3):294–306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2007.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cichocka D, Claxton J, Economidis I, Högel J, Venturi P, Aguilar A (2011) European Union research and innovation perspectives on biotechnology. J Biotechnol 156(4):382–391.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2011.06.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cruz-Morató C, Rodríguez-Rodríguez CE, Marco-Urrea E, Sarrà M, Caminal G, Vicent T, Jelić A, Garcia-Galán MJ, Pérez S, Díaz-Cruz MS, Petrović M, Barceló D (2012) Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals by fungi and metabolites identification. In: Vicent T, Caminal G, Eljarrat E, Barceló D (eds) Emerging organic contaminants in sludges, The handbook of environmental chemistry, vol. 24. Springer, Berlin.  https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2012_158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cruz-Morató C, Ferrando-Climent L, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Barceló D, Marco-Urrea E, Vicent T, Sarrà M (2013) Degradation of pharmaceuticals in non-sterile urban wastewater by Trametes versicolor in a fluidized bed bioreactor. Water Res 47(14):5200–5210.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davison IR (1991) Environmental effects on algal photosynthesis: temperature. J Phycol 27(1):2–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Godos I, Muñoz R, Guieysse B (2012) Tetracycline removal during wastewater treatment in high-rate algal ponds. J Hazard Mater 229–230:446–449.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.05.106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. de-Bashan LE, Bashan Y (2010) Immobilized microalgae for removing pollutants: review of practical aspects. Bioresour Technol 101(6):1611–1627.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.09.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. de-Bashan LE, Moreno M, Hernandez JP, Bashan Y (2002) Removal of ammonium and phosphorus ions from synthetic wastewater by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris coimmobilized in alginate beads with the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Water Res 36(12):2941–2948.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00522-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dolar D, Košutić K (2013) Chapter 10—removal of pharmaceuticals by ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO). In: Comprehensive analytical chemistry, vol 62. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 319–344Google Scholar
  31. Dolar D, Gros M, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Moreno J, Comas J, Rodriguez-Roda I, Barceló D (2012) Removal of emerging contaminants from municipal wastewater with an integrated membrane system, MBR/RO. J Hazard Mater 239–240(0):64–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.03.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dote Y, Sawayama S, Inoue S, Minowa T, Yokoyama SY (1994) Recovery of liquid fuel from hydrocarbon-rich microalgae by thermochemical liquefaction. Fuel 73(12):1855–1857.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(94)90211-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eroglu E, Agarwal V, Bradshaw M, Chen Z, Smith SM, Raston CL, Swaminathan Iyer K (2012) Nitrate removal from liquid effluents using microalgae immobilized on chitosan nanofiber mats. Green Chem 14(10):2682–2685.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C2GC35970G CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eroglu L, Smith SM, Raston CM (2015) Application of various immobilization techniques for algal bioprocesses. In: Moheimani N, McHenry M, de Boer K, Bahri P (eds) Biomass and biofuels from microalgae, Biofuel and biorefinery technologies, vol. 2. Springer, Cham.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16640-7_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Escapa C, Coimbra RM, Paniagua S, García AI, Otero M (2016) Paracetamol and salicylic acid removal from contaminated water by microalgae. J Environ Manag 203:799–806.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.06.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. European Commission (2015) Commission implementing decision (EU) 2015/495 establishing a watch list of substances for union-wide monitoring in the field of water policy pursuant to directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L78/40–L78/42Google Scholar
  37. Eurostat (2017) Primary production of renewable energy by type. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=ten00081&language=en. Accessed 15 Mar 2017
  38. Farré M, Perez S, Kantiani L, Barcelo D (2008) Fate and toxicity of emerging pollutants, their metabolites and transformation products in aquatic environment. Trac Trends Anal Chem 27(11):991–1007.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2008.09.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fatta-Kassinos D (2010) K. Kümmerer, pharmaceuticals in the environment: sources, fate, effects and risks. Environ Sci Pollut Res 17(2):519–521.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-009-0276-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ferrando-Climent L, Collado N, Buttiglieri G, Gros M, Rodriguez-Roda I, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Barceló D (2012) Comprehensive study of ibuprofen and its metabolites in activated sludge batch experiments and aquatic environment. Sci Total Environ 438(0):404–413.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.08.073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ferrando-Climent L, Cruz-Morató C, Marco-Urrea E, Vicent T, Sarrà M, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Barceló D (2015) Non conventional biological treatment based on Trametes versicolor for the elimination of recalcitrant anticancer drugs in hospital wastewater. Chemosphere 136:9–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.03.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fierro S, Sánchez-Saavedra MP, Copalcúa C (2008) Nitrate and phosphate removal by chitosan immobilized Scenedesmus. Bioresour Technol 99(5):1274–1279.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.02.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fontaras G, Skoulou V, Zanakis G, Zabaniotou A, Samaras Z (2012) Integrated environmental assessment of energy crops for biofuel and energy production in Greece. Renew Energy 43:201–209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fukuda H, Kondo A, Noda H (2001) Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils. J Biosci Bioeng 92(5):405–416.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1723(01)80288-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gagnon C, Lajeunesse A (2008) Persistence and fate of highly soluble pharmaceutical products in various types of municipal wastewater treatment plants. Waste Manag Environ IV 109:799–807.  https://doi.org/10.2495/WM080811 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Garcia-Galan MJ, Villagrasa M, Diaz-Cruz MS, Barcelo D (2010) LC-QqLIT MS analysis of nine sulfonamides and one of their acetylated metabolites in the Llobregat River basin. Quantitative determination and qualitative evaluation by IDA experiments. Anal Bioanal Chem 397(3):1325–1334.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-3630-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Garnham GW, Codd GA, Gadd GM (1992) Accumulation of cobalt, zinc and manganese by the estuarine green microalga Chlorella salina immobilized in alginate microbeads. Environ Sci Technol 26(9):1764–1770.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00033a008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Goff MJ, Bauer NS, Lopes S, Sutterlin WR, Suppes GJ (2004) Acid-catalyzed alcoholysis of soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 81(4):415–420.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-004-0915-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gonçalves AL, Pires JCM, Simões M (2017) A review on the use of microalgal consortia for wastewater treatment. Algal Res 24:403–415.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2016.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. González LE, Cañizares RO, Baena S (1997) Efficiency of ammonia and phosphorus removal from a Colombian agroindustrial wastewater by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus dimorphus. Bioresour Technol 60(3):259–262.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(97)00029-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Griffiths MJ, van Hille RP, Harrison STL (2012) Lipid productivity, settling potential and fatty acid profile of 11 microalgal species grown under nitrogen replete and limited conditions. J Appl Phycol 24(5):989–1001.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-011-9723-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Guo WQ, Zheng HS, Li S, Du JS, Feng XC, Yin RL, Wu QL, Ren NQ, Chang JS (2016) Removal of cephalosporin antibiotics 7-ACA from wastewater during the cultivation of lipid-accumulating microalgae. Bioresour Technol 221:284–290.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.09.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Harun R, Singh M, Forde GM, Danquah MK (2010) Bioprocess engineering of microalgae to produce a variety of consumer products. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14(3):1037–1047.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Henderson R, Parsons SA, Jefferson B (2008) The impact of algal properties and pre-oxidation on solid–liquid separation of algae. Water Res 42(8–9):1827–1845.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.11.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hernandez JP, de-Bashan LE, Bashan Y (2006) Starvation enhances phosphorus removal from wastewater by the microalga chlorella spp. co-immobilized with Azospirillum brasilense. Enzym Microb Technol 38(1–2):190–198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2005.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hom-Diaz A, Llorca M, Rodríguez-Mozaz S, Vicent T, Barceló D, Blánquez P (2015) Microalgae cultivation on wastewater digestate: β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol degradation and transformation products identification. J Environ Manag 155:106–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Huang G, Chen F, Wei D, Zhang X, Chen G (2010) Biodiesel production by microalgal biotechnology. Appl Energy 87(1):38–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.06.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jacob-Lopes E, Mérida LGR, Queiroz MI, Zepka LQ (2015) Microalgal biorefineries. In: Jacob-Lopes E, Zepka LQ (eds) Biomass production and uses. InTechOpen, Rijeka. doi:  https://doi.org/10.5772/59969 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jang ES, Jung MY, Min DB (2005) Hydrogenation for low trans and high conjugated fatty acids. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 4(1):22–30.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2005.tb00069.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jelic A, Cruz-Morato C, Marco-Urrea E, Sarra M, Perez S, Vicent T, Petrovic M, Barcelo D (2012) Degradation of carbamazepine by Trametes versicolor in an air pulsed fluidized bed bioreactor and identification of intermediates. Water Res 46(4):955–964.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2011.11.063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jiménez-Pérez MV, Sánchez-Castillo P, Romera O, Fernández-Moreno D, Pérez-Martınez C (2004) Growth and nutrient removal in free and immobilized planktonic green algae isolated from pig manure. Enzym Microb Technol 34(5):392–398.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2003.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kaya VM, de la Noüe J, Picard G (1995) A comparative study of four systems for tertiary wastewater treatment by Scenedesmus bicellularis: new technology for immobilization. J Appl Phycol 7(1):85–95.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00003556 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Klavarioti M, Mantzavinos D, Kassinos D (2009) Removal of residual pharmaceuticals from aqueous systems by advanced oxidation processes. Environ Int 35(2):402–417.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2008.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kovalova L, Siegrist H, Singer H, Wittmer A, McArdell CS (2012) Hospital wastewater treatment by membrane bioreactor: performance and efficiency for organic micropollutant elimination. Environ Sci Technol 46(3):1536–1545.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es203495d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kumar K, Dasgupta CN, Nayak B, Lindblad P, Das D (2011) Development of suitable photobioreactors for CO2 sequestration addressing global warming using green algae and cyanobacteria. Bioresour Technol 102(8):4945–4953.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.01.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kümmerer K, Steger-Hartmann T, Meyer M (1997) Biodegradability of the anti-tumour agent ifosfamide and its occurrence in hospital effluents and communal sewage. Water Res 31(11):2705–2710.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(97)00121-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lam MK, Lee KT (2012a) Immobilization as a feasible method to simplify the separation of microalgae from water for biodiesel production. Chem Eng J 191:263–268.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.03.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lam MK, Lee KT (2012b) Microalgae biofuels: a critical review of issues, problems and the way forward. Biotechnol Adv 30(3):673–690.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Le Corre KS, Ort C, Kateley D, Allen B, Escher BI, Keller J (2012) Consumption-based approach for assessing the contribution of hospitals towards the load of pharmaceutical residues in municipal wastewater. Environ Int 45(0):99–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2012.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Levine RB, Costanza-Robinson MS, Spatafora GA (2011) Neochloris oleoabundans grown on anaerobically digested dairy manure for concomitant nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production. Biomass Bioenergy 35(1):40–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.08.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Li Y, Horsman M, Wu N, Lan CQ, Dubois-Calero N (2008) Biofuels from microalgae. Biotechnol Prog 24(4):815–820.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bp070371k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lishman L, Smyth SA, Sarafin K, Kleywegt S, Toito J, Peart T, Lee B, Servos M, Beland M, Seto P (2006) Occurrence and reductions of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and estrogens by municipal wastewater treatment plants in Ontario, Canada. Sci Total Environ 367(2–3):544–558.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.03.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mallick N (2002) Biotechnological potential of immobilized algae for wastewater N, P and metal removal: a review. Biometals 15(4):377–390.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1020238520948 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mallick N, Rai LC (1994) Removal of inorganic ions from wastewaters by immobilized microalgae. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 10(4):439–443.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00144469 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Marco-Urrea E, Pérez-Trujillo M, Vicent T, Caminal G (2009) Ability of white-rot fungi to remove selected pharmaceuticals and identification of degradation products of ibuprofen by Trametes versicolor. Chemosphere 74(6):765–772.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.10.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Marco-Urrea E, Pérez-Trujillo M, Blánquez P, Vicent T, Caminal G (2010a) Biodegradation of the analgesic naproxen by Trametes versicolor and identification of intermediates using HPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Bioresour Technol 101(7):2159–2166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.11.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Marco-Urrea E, Perez-Trujillo M, Cruz-Morato C, Caminal G, Vicent T (2010b) White-rot fungus–mediated degradation of the analgesic ketoprofen and identification of intermediates by HPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Chemosphere 78(4):474–481.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Matamoros V, Uggetti E, Garcia J, Bayona JM (2016) Assessment of the mechanisms involved in the removal of emerging contaminants by microalgae from wastewater: a laboratory scale study. J Hazard Mater 301:197–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.08.050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Minowa T, Yokoyama SY, Kishimoto M, Okakura T (1995) Oil production from algal cells of Dunaliella tertiolecta by direct thermochemical liquefaction. Fuel 74(12):1735–1738.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(95)80001-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Moreno-Garrido I (2008) Microalgae immobilization: current techniques and uses. Bioresour Technol 99(10):3949–3964.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Norvill ZN, Shilton A, Guieysse B (2016) Emerging contaminant degradation and removal in algal wastewater treatment ponds: identifying the research gaps. J Hazard Mater 313:291–309.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.03.085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Onesios KM, Yu JT, Bouwer EJ (2009) Biodegradation and removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products in treatment systems: a review. Biodegradation 20:441–466.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10532-008-9237-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Osorio V, Perez S, Ginebreda A, Barcelo D (2012) Pharmaceuticals on a sewage impacted section of a Mediterranean river (Llobregat River, NE Spain) and their relationship with hydrological conditions. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19(4):1013–1025.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0603-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Paxeus N (2004) Removal of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), gemfibrozil, carbamazepine, beta-blockers, trimethoprim and triclosan in conventional wastewater treatment plants in five EU countries and their discharge to the aquatic environment. Water Sci Technol 50(5):253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Perez-Garcia O, Escalante FME, de-Bashan LE, Bashan Y (2011) Heterotrophic cultures of microalgae: metabolism and potential products. Water Res 45(1):11–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.08.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Petrovic M, Ginebreda A et al (2012) Combined scenarios of chemical and ecological quality under water scarcity in Mediterranean rivers. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 30(8):1269–1278.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2011.04.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pulz O (2001) Photobioreactors: production systems for phototrophic microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57(3):287–293.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530100702 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ramos Tercero EA, Domenicali G, Bertucco A (2014) Autotrophic production of biodiesel from microalgae: an updated process and economic analysis. Energy 76:807–815.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.08.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Reif Lopez R (2011) Feasibility of membrane bioreactors for the removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products present in sewage, Ph.D. thesis, Universidade de Santiago de CompostelaGoogle Scholar
  90. Santander C, Robles PA, Cisternas LA, Rivas M (2014) Technical–economic feasibility study of the installation of biodiesel from microalgae crops in the Atacama Desert of Chile. Fuel Process Technol 125:267–276.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.03.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sawaengsak W, Silalertruksa T, Bangviwat A, Gheewala SH (2014) Life cycle cost of biodiesel production from microalgae in Thailand. Energy Sustain Dev 18:67–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2013.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sipma J, Osuna B, Collado N, Monclús H, Ferrero G, Comas J, Rodriguez-Roda I (2010) Comparison of removal of pharmaceuticals in MBR and activated sludge systems. Desalination 250(2):653–659.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2009.06.073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Solé A, Matamoros V (2016) Removal of endocrine disrupting compounds from wastewater by microalgae co-immobilized in alginate beads. Chemosphere 164:516–523.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.08.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Subashchandrabose SR, Ramakrishnan B, Megharaj M, Venkateswarlu K, Naidu R (2011) Consortia of cyanobacteria/microalgae and bacteria: biotechnological potential. Biotechnol Adv 29(6):896–907.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sullivan Graham EJ, Dean CA et al (2017) Oil and gas produced water as a growth medium for microalgae cultivation: a review and feasibility analysis. Algal Res 24:492–504.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2017.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sun F, Wu F, Liao H, Xing B (2011) Biosorption of antimony(V) by freshwater cyanobacteria Microcystis biomass: chemical modification and biosorption mechanisms. Chem Eng J 171(3):1082–1090.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tam NFY, Wong YS (2000) Effect of immobilized microalgal bead concentrations on wastewater nutrient removal. Environ Pollut 107(1):145–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00118-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tan CH, Chen CY, Show PL, Ling TC, Lam HL, Lee DJ, Chang JS (2016) Strategies for enhancing lipid production from indigenous microalgae isolates. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 63:189–194.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2016.02.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tang H, Chen M, Garcia MED, Abunasser N, Ng KYS, Salley SO (2011) Culture of microalgae Chlorella minutissima for biodiesel feedstock production. Biotechnol Bioeng 108(10):2280–2287.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.23160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Travieso L, Benitez F, Weiland P, Sánchez E, Dupeyrón R, Dominguez AR (1996) Experiments on immobilization of microalgae for nutrient removal in wastewater treatments. Bioresour Technol 55(3):181–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-8524(95)00196-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tsukahara K, Sawayama S (2005) Liquid fuel production using microalgae. J Jpn Pet Inst 48(5):251–259.  https://doi.org/10.1627/jpi.48.251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Um BH, Kim YS (2009) Review: a chance for Korea to advance algal-biodiesel technology. J Ind Eng Chem 15(1):1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2008.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Umdu ES, Tuncer M, Seker E (2009) Transesterification of Nannochloropsis oculata microalga’s lipid to biodiesel on Al2O3 supported CaO and MgO catalysts. Bioresour Technol 100(11):2828–2831.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.12.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Urrutia I, Serra JL, Llama MJ (1995) Nitrate removal from water by Scenedesmus obliquus immobilized in polymeric foams. Enzym Microb Technol 17(3):200–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(94)00008-F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Venkata Mohan S, Rohit MV, Chiranjeevi P, Chandra R, Navaneeth B (2015) Heterotrophic microalgae cultivation to synergize biodiesel production with waste remediation: progress and perspectives. Bioresour Technol 184:169–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.10.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Verlicchi P, Galletti A, Petrovic M, Barceló D (2010) Hospital effluents as a source of emerging pollutants: an overview of micropollutants and sustainable treatment options. J Hydrol 389(3–4):416–428.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Verlicchi P, Al Aukidy M, Galletti A, Petrovic M, Barceló D (2012) Hospital effluent: investigation of the concentrations and distribution of pharmaceuticals and environmental risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 430(0):109–118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Verlicchi P, Galletti A, Petrovic M, Barceló D, Al Aukidy M, Zambello E (2013) Removal of selected pharmaceuticals from domestic wastewater in an activated sludge system followed by a horizontal subsurface flow bed: analysis of their respective contributions. Sci Total Environ 454–455(0):411–425.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Verlicchi P, Al Aukidy M, Jelic A, Petrovic M, Barceló D (2014) Comparison of measured and predicted concentrations of selected pharmaceuticals in wastewater and surface water: a case study of a catchment area in the Po Valley (Italy). Sci Total Environ 470–471(0):844–854.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wahid MH, Eroglu E, Chen X, Smith SM, Raston CL (2013a) Entrapment of Chlorella vulgaris cells within graphene oxide layers. RSC Adv 3(22):8180–8183.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C3RA40605A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wahid MH, Eroglu E, Chen X, Smith SM, Raston CL (2013b) Functional multi-layer graphene–algae hybrid material formed using vortex fluidics. Green Chem 15(3):650–655.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C2GC36892G CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wan Maznah WO, Al-Fawwaz AT, Surif M (2012) Biosorption of copper and zinc by immobilised and free algal biomass, and the effects of metal biosorption on the growth and cellular structure of Chlorella sp. and Chlamydomonas sp. isolated from rivers in Penang, Malaysia. J Environ Sci 24(8):1386–1393.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(11)60931-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Xu H, Miao X, Wu Q (2006) High quality biodiesel production from a microalga Chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters. J Biotechnol 126(4):499–507.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2006.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yan Z, Jiang H, Li C, Shi Y (2014) Accelerated removal of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in freshwater sediments with amendment of cyanobacteria-derived organic matter. J Hazard Mater 272(0):66–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.02.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yeh KL, Chang JS (2012) Effects of cultivation conditions and media composition on cell growth and lipid productivity of indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31. Bioresour Technol 105:120–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.11.103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yen HW, Hu IC, Chen CY, Ho SH, Lee DJ, Chang JS (2013) Microalgae-based biorefinery—from biofuels to natural products. Bioresour Technol 135:166–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhan J, Rong J, Wang Q (2016) Mixotrophic cultivation, a preferable microalgae cultivation mode for biomass/bioenergy production, and bioremediation, advances and prospect. Int J Hydrog Energy 42:8505.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.12.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhang Y, Dubé MA, McLean DD, Kates M (2003) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1. Process design and technological assessment. Bioresour Technol 89(1):1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00040-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhang J, Chang VWC, Giannis A, Wang JY (2013) Removal of cytostatic drugs from aquatic environment: a review. Sci Total Environ 445–446(0):281–298.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.12.061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Escudero-Oñate
    • 1
    Email author
  • Laura Ferrando-Climent
    • 2
  1. 1.Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA)OsloNorway
  2. 2.Tracer Technology Department, Fluid Flow and Environmental TechnologyInstitute for Energy TechnologyKjellerNorway

Personalised recommendations