Advertisement

Determination of Sex Discriminant Function Analysis in Chinese Human Skulls

  • Wen Yang
  • Xiaoning Liu
  • Fei Zhu
  • Guohua Geng
  • Kang Li
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10996)

Abstract

Introduction: Human identity and sex determination are crucial for forensic investigations. The human skull is a useful tool for identities in natural disasters and criminal investigations. Aim: Using stepwise Fisher and logistic regression to build multivariate linear discriminant function to achieve sex determination for Uighur adult skull of Turpan, Xinjiang. Methods: Using CT equipment to acquire and reconstruct 267 (114 males and 153 females) three-dimensional skull models. Sixteen measurement indicators were measured and computed. Stepwise Fisher and logistic regression was performed to build the sex discriminant function and leave-one-out cross validation was used to evaluate accuracy. Results: Average of fifteen measurement indicators of male was bigger than that of female. Only one measurement indicator of male was smaller than female. Except two indicators (X7 and X13), the other existed significant difference (\( p \) < 0.01). According to sex discriminant function consisting of four indicators (X1, X4, X10, X11), using stepwise Fisher method, the accuracy of male was 86.8% and female was 86.2%. According to sex discriminant function consisting of five indicators (X4, X6, X12, X15, X16), using Logistic method, the accuracy of male was 89.4% and female was 90.2%. According to sex discriminant function consisting of incomplete skull with only frontal and mandibular, using stepwise Fisher method, the accuracy of male was 67.9% and female was 69.1%. Using Logistic method, the accuracy of male was 68.7% and female was 70.4%. Conclusion: By combining computer software with machine learning classification algorithm, the sex discrimination of complete skull and incomplete skull can be realized. In the gender identification of the Uygur population, the Logistic regression method is better than the stepwise Fisher method.

Keywords

Forensic anthropology 3D skull model Measurement indicators Sex determination Logistic regression Stepwise Fisher 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61363065) and Shaanxi Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (2014JM8358) and Shaanxi Province International Cooperation Project (2013KW04-04) and Shaanxi provincial science and Technology Department Project (2010JQ8011) and the Graduate Scientific Research Foundation of Northwest University (no. YZZ17181) and Shaanxi Provincial Natural Science Basic Research Project (2018JM6061).

References

  1. 1.
    Ubelaker, D.H., Volk, C.G.: A test of the Phenice method for the estimation of sex. J. Forensic Sci. 47(1), 19–24 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sangvichien, S., Boonkaew, K., Chuncharunee, A., et al.: Sex determination in Thai skulls by using Craniometry: multiple logistic regression analysis. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(12), 2407–2423 (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krogman, W.M.: Book Reviews: The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine, vol. 4, 3rd edn. Charles C Thoms, US (1962). pp. 287–288Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ramsthaler, F., Kettner, M., Gehl, A., et al.: Digital forensic osteology: morphological sexing of skeletal remains using volume-rendered cranial CT scans. Forensic Sci. Int. 195(1–3), 148–152 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li, M., Fan, Y.N., Yu, Y.M., et al.: Sex assessment of adult from southwest area of China by bones of facial cranium. Chin. J. Forensic Med. 27(2), 132–134 (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anabel, A.: Sexual dimorphism in base of skull. Anthropol. Anz. 74(1), 9–14 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kharosha, M.A., Almadani, O., Ghaleb, S.S., et al.: Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a modern Egyptian population. J. Forensic Leg. Med. 17(4), 213–215 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spradley, M.K., Jantz, R.L.: Sex estimation in forensic anthropology: skull versus postcranial elements. J. Forensic Sci. 56(2), 289–296 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Raghavendra Babu, Y.P., Kanchan, T., Attiku, Y., et al.: Sex estimation from foramen magnum dimensions in an Indian population. J. Forensic Leg. Med. 19(3), 162–167 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Akhlaghi, M., Bakhtavar, K., Moarefdoost, J., et al.: Frontal sinus parameters in computed tomography and sex determination. Leg. Med. 19, 22–27 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tanya, K., Arpita, K., Uday, G., et al.: Cephalometric analysis for gender determination using maxillary sinus index: a novel dimension in personal identification. Int. J. Dent. 2017(1), 1–4 (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu, X.N., Zhu, L.P., Lu, Y.N., et al.: Hierarchical skull registration method with a bounded rotation angle. In: Intelligent Computing Methodologies, pp. 561–571 (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li, J.S., Zhang, F.S., Zhu, B.M., et al.: Observation and measurement of men’s and women’s skull. J. Shanxi Datong Univ. (Natural Science) 28(4), 45–46 (2012)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hanihara, K., Kimura, K., Minamidate, T.: The sexing of Japanese skeleton by means of discriminant function. Nihon Hoigaku Zasshi 18(2), 107–114 (1964)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tanaka, T., Hanihara, K., Koizumi, K.: Sex determination of the modern Japanese skull by means of discriminant function. Sapporo Med. J. 48, 582–593 (1979)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hanihara, K.: Sexual diagnosis of Japanese skulls and scapulae by means of discriminant function. Anthropolgical Sci. 67(4), 191–197 (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Iscan, M.Y., Yoshino, M., Kato, S.: Sexual dimorphism in modern Japanese crania. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 7, 459–464 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Giles, E., Elliot, O.: Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 21, 53–68 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Steyn, M., Iscan, M.Y.: Sexual dimorphism in the crania and mandibles of South African whites. Forensic Sci. Int. 98(1–2), 9–16 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Twisha, S., Patel, M.N., Nath, S., et al.: Determination of sex using cephalo-facial dimensions by discriminant function and logistic regression equations. Egypt. J. Forensic Sci. 6(2), 114–119 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ren, R.R., Zhou, M.Q., Geng, G.H., et al.: Nonlinear sex determination and three dimensional quantitative representation of the skull morphology. J. Beijing Normal Univ. (Natural Science) 53(1), 19–23 (2017)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wen Yang
    • 1
  • Xiaoning Liu
    • 1
  • Fei Zhu
    • 1
  • Guohua Geng
    • 1
  • Kang Li
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Information Science and TechnologyNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations