Treatment of Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesias

  • Nikola Kresojević
  • Roberto Erro
  • Kailash BhatiaEmail author
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU)


Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is characterized by very brief (<60 s) but frequent (up to 100 times daily) attacks of dystonia and chorea triggered by sudden voluntary movements. PKD can be primary (idiopathic) or secondary (symptomatic); the former is associated with mutations in the gene encoding the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2). Episodes are not painful, consciousness is always intact and between attacks patients are usually normal. PKD occurs isolated or in combination with other episodic disorders, namely, epilepsy and migraine, when associated with PRRT2 gene. Treatment efficacy and outcome depend on the aetiology of PKD. Idiopathic PKD can be successfully treated with low doses of carbamazepine, but several other antiepileptic drugs have also been described to be effective. In “symptomatic” PKD, treatment strategies should first target the underlying causative process.


Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia Migraine Epilepsy Episodic ataxia Antiepileptic drugs 

Suggested Reading

  1. Erro R, Sheerin UM, Bhatia KP. Paroxysmal dyskinesias revisited: A review of 500 genetically proven cases and a new classification. Mov Disord. 2014;29(9):1108–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gardiner AR, Jaffer F, Dale RC, Labrum R, Erro R, Meyer E, et al. The clinical and genetic heterogeneity of paroxysmal dyskinesias. Brain. 2015;138(12):3567–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Mink JW. Treatment of paroxysmal dyskinesias in children. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2015;17(6):350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikola Kresojević
    • 1
    • 2
  • Roberto Erro
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kailash Bhatia
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement DisordersUniversity College London (UCL) Institute of NeurologyLondonUK
  2. 2.Neurology Clinic, CCS, School of MedicineUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (CEMAND), Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry “Scuola Medica Salernitana”Universitá di SalernoBaronissi, SAItaly

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