Advertisement

Imported Nationalism: The Appearance and Evolution of “X” Organization in Cyprus

  • Alexios Alecou
Chapter

Abstract

Alecou aims to examine the reasons and consequences of the belayed development of far-right in Cyprus in the 1940s, focusing on the appearance and evolution of the “X” organization. While the effects of nationalism on the political life in Cyprus have been influential throughout its contemporary history, nationalism produced a permanent division among the society of the Greek Cypriot community. The analysis focuses on the evolution and radicalization of extreme right groups in Greece and then attention switches to the relation between the Greek and Cypriot nationalists, and especially the influence of the Greeks on the Greek Cypriots during the Greek civil war.

References

  1. Alecou, A. (2012). 1948: Ο ελληνικός εμφύλιος και η Κύπρος [The Greek Civil War and Cyprus]. Nicosia: Power Publisher.Google Scholar
  2. Alecou, A. (2016). Communism and Nationalism in Postwar Cyprus, 1945–1955. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Athanasiades, G. (1994). The First Act of the Greek Tragedy [Η πρώτη πράξη της ελληνικής τραγωδίας]. Athens: Syghroni Epohi.Google Scholar
  4. Betz, D. S.-G. (2003). Globalization, the Welfare State and Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe. Socio-economic Review, 1, 215–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bujeiro, C. C. (2009). Blue Division Soldier 1941–45: Spanish Volunteer on the Eastern Front. Oxford: Osprey.Google Scholar
  6. Drousiotis, M. (2000). Πως φτάσαμε στην ΕΟΚΑ [How We Ended up to EOKA]. Nicosia: Alfadi.Google Scholar
  7. Ellinas, A. A. (2013). The Rise of Golden Dawn: The New Face of the Far Right in Greece. South European Society and Politics, 18(4), 543–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fleischer, H. (1982). Επαφές μεταξύ των Γερμανικών Αρχών Κατοχής και των Κυριότερων Οργανώσεων της Ελληνικής Αντίστασης [Contacts Between German Occupation Authorities and the Major Greek Resistance Organizations: Sound Tactics or Collaboration?]. In J. Iatrides (Ed.), Η Ελλάδα στη Δεκαετία του 1940–1950: Ένα Έθνος σε Κρίση [Greece in the ‘40s: A Nation in Crisis] (pp. 91–115). Athens: Themelio.Google Scholar
  9. Fleischer, H. (1995). The National Liberation Front (EAM), 1941–1947. A Reassessment. In J. Iatrides & L. Wrigley (Eds.), Greece at the Crossroads. The Civil War and Its Legacy (pp. 56, 48–89). New York: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Grivas, G. (1947, August 25). Το αμείλικτον κατηγορώ. Newspaper of Hites.Google Scholar
  11. Hatzis, T. (1982). The Lost Winning Revolution [Η νικηφόρα επανάσταση που χάθηκε]. Athens: Dorikos.Google Scholar
  12. Jurado, C., & Bujeiro, R. (2009). Blue Division Soldier 1941–45: Spanish Volunteer on the Eastern Front. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Katsiaounis, R. (2000). I Diaskeptiki 1946–1948 [Η Διασκεπτική 1946–1948]. Nicosia: Scientific Research Centre.Google Scholar
  14. Katsourides, Y. (2013a). Determinants of Extreme Right Reappearance in Cyprus: The National Popular Front (ELAM), Golden Dawn’s Sister Party. South European Society and Politics, 18(4), 567–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Katsourides, Y. (2013b). Nationalism, Anti-colonialism and the Crystallisation of Greek Cypriot Nationalist Party Politics. Common Wealth and Comparative Politics, 51(4), 503–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Margaritis, G. (2001). History of the Greek Civil War 1946–1949 [Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Εμφυλίου Πολέμου 1946–1949]. Athens: Vivliorama.Google Scholar
  17. Marketos, S. (2006). How I Kissed Mussolini: The First Steps of Greek Fascism [Πώς φίλησα τον Μουσσολίνι. Τα πρώτα βήματα του ελληνικού φασισμού]. Athens: Vivliorama.Google Scholar
  18. Marketos, S. (2009). Η ελληνική άκρα δεξιά τη δεκαετία του 1940 [The Greek Far Right in the ‘40s]. In C. Chatziosif (Ed.), ΙστορίατηςΕλλάδαςτου 20ούαιώνα: Ανασυγκρότηση, Εμφύλιος, Παλινόρθωση 1945–1952 [History of Greece in the 20th Century: Reformation, Civil War, Restoration 1945–1952] (Vol. D2, pp. 1–66). Athens: Vivliorama.Google Scholar
  19. Mazower, M. (1994). In Hitler’s Greece [Στην Ελλάδα του Χίτλερ]. Athens: Alexandreia.Google Scholar
  20. Mudde, C. (1996). The War of Words Defining the Extreme Right Party Family. West European Politics, 19(2), 225–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nikolakopoulos, I. (2005). Η Τραγική Πορεία προς τον Εμφύλιο Πόλεμο [The Tragic March Towards the Civil War]. In C. Karagiorgis (Ed.), Δημοκράτες χωρίς Δημοκρατία-Τα μοιραία χρόνια 1946–47 [Democrats Without Democracy. The Fatal Years] (pp. 11–23). Athens: Proskinio.Google Scholar
  22. Papageorgiou, S. (2004). Grivas and the X Organization: The Lost Archive [Ο Γρίβας και η «Χ», Το χαμένο αρχείο]. Athens: Nea Thesis.Google Scholar
  23. Passmore, Κ. (2002). Fascism. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Paxton, R. (2007). The Anatomy of Fascism. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  25. Rallis, G. (1993). Looking Back [Κοιτάζοντας πίσω] (Vol. 301). Athens: Ermeias.Google Scholar
  26. Stevens, J. (1982). On Present Conditions in Central Greece. In L. Baerentzen (Ed.), British Reports on Greece 1943–44 (p. 5). Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum.Google Scholar
  27. Weiss, J. (1977). Conservatism in Europe 1770–1945. Traditionalism, Reaction and Counter-Revolution. London: Thames and Hudson. Google Scholar
  28. Woodhouse, C. M. (1948). Apple of Discord. London: William B Oneill.Google Scholar
  29. Woodhouse, C. M. (2002). The Struggle for Greece, 1941–1949. London: Hurst Publishers.Google Scholar

Archival material

  1. Y.D.I.A. Diplomatic and Historical Archives of the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 88/1, 1948.Google Scholar

Newspapers

  1. Efimeris 3/10/1948.Google Scholar
  2. Efimeris ton Chiton 8/07/1945, 24/11/1946, 2/02/1948a, 23/02/1948b, 1/03/1948c, 20/12/1948d, 1/08/1949.Google Scholar
  3. Eleftheria 12/02/1945.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexios Alecou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HistoryUniversity of CyprusNicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations