National Identity, Otherness, and Bi-communalRelations Through the Cypriot Greek-Speaking Press Between 1878 and 1912

  • Petros Nikolaou


Nikolaou examines the relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots as portrayed in the Greek-speaking press during the first years of British period (1878–1912). He discusses the dialectical relationship between “identity” and “otherness” applied in the case of Cyprus, by stressing particularly the role that the Greek-speaking press played in this regard. The press is examined as a tool representing and promoting the interests and aspirations of the Greek Cypriot elite, and as an early agent of Greek nationalism in Cyprus. As such, it took a major part in diffusing and cultivating Greek national identity and constructing—simultaneously—an image of the Turks as the “others”.


Turkish Cypriots Greek Cypriot Greek Nationalism Alithea Evagoras 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anagnostopoulou, S. (2004). The Passage from the Ottoman Empire to the Nation–States: A Long and Difficult Process: The Greek Case. Istanbul: The Isis Press.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (Rev. ed.). London: Verso Books.Google Scholar
  3. Aroni-Tsihli, K. (2008). Ιστορικές Σχολές και Μέθοδοι: Εισαγωγή στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ιστοριογραφία: Πανεπιστημιακές Παραδόσεις [Historical Schools and Methods: Introduction to the European Historiography]. Athens: Papazisi.Google Scholar
  4. Attalides, M. A. (1981). Οι Σχέσεις Ελληνοκυπρίων και Τουρκοκυπρίων [The Relations Between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots]. Ιn G. Tenekides & Y. Kranidiotis (Eds.), Κύπρος: Ιστορία, Προβλήματα και Αγώνες του Λαού της [Cyprus: History, ProblemsandStrugglesofitsPeople]. Athens: Estia.Google Scholar
  5. Heraclides, A. (2006). Το Κυπριακό, 1947–2004: Από την Ένωση στη Διχοτόμηση [Cyprus Issue, 1947–2004: From Enosis to Partition?]. Athens: Sideris.Google Scholar
  6. Hill, S. G. F. (1952). A History of Cyprus: The Ottoman Province; the British Colony, 1571–1948. In L. Harry (Ed.), A History of Cyprus (Vol. 4). London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Hobsbawm, E. J. (1992). Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Katalanos, N. (1914). Κυπριακόν Λεύκωμα Ο Ζήνων [Cyprus Album Zenon]. Nicosia: Petridou & Nikolaou.Google Scholar
  9. Katsiaounis, R. (1996). Labour, Society and Politics in Cyprus During the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre.Google Scholar
  10. Katsiaounis, R. (2004). Η Διασκεπτική 1946–1948, με Ανασκόπηση της Περιόδου 1878–1945 [The Consultative Assembly, 1946–1948: With an Overview of the 1878–1945 Period]. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Center.Google Scholar
  11. Kitromilides, P. (1994). Enlightenment, Nationalism, Orthodoxy: Studies in the Culture and Political Though of South-Eastern Europe. Aldershot: Variorum.Google Scholar
  12. Kitromilides, P. (2003). “Νοερές Κοινότητες” και οι Απαρχές του Εθνικού Ζητήματος στα Βαλκάνια [“Imagined Communities” and the Origins of the National Question in the Balkans]. Ιn T. Veremis (Ed.), Εθνική Ταυτότητα και Εθνικισμός στη Νεότερη Ελλάδα [National Identity and Nationalism in Modern Greece] (pp. 53–153). Athens: National Bank of Greece Cultural Foundation.Google Scholar
  13. Kızılyürek, N. (1993). Η Κύπρος Πέραντου Έθνους [Cyprus beyond Nation]. Nicosia: Kasoulides & Sons.Google Scholar
  14. Kızılyürek, N. (1999). Κύπρος, το Αδιέξοδο των Εθνικισμών [Cyprus: The Deadlock of Nationalisms]. Athens: Black List.Google Scholar
  15. Kotalakides, G., & Chalkia, A. (2003). «Εμείς» καιοι «Άλλοι» : Ελληνική Εθνική Ταυτότητα και η Διαμόρφωση της Ταυτότητας των Ποντίων Μεταναστών στην Ελληνική Κοινωνία [We and the Others: The Formation of Pontian Immigrants’ Identity in Greece]. Utopia, 54, 149–167.Google Scholar
  16. Kyriakides, G., & Michaelidou, M. (2006). Η Προσέγγιση του Άλλου: Ιδεολογία, Μεθοδολογία και Ερευνητική Πρακτική [Approaching the Other: Ideology, Methodology and Research Practice]. Athens: Metechmio.Google Scholar
  17. Lekkas, P. (1992). Η Εθνικιστική Ιδεολογία: Πέντε Υποθέσεις Εργασίας στην Ιστορική Κοινωνιολογία [The Nationalist Ideology: Five Working Hypotheses in Historical Sociology]. Athens: Katarti.Google Scholar
  18. Michael, Μ. Ν. (2004). Η Διαδικασία Συγκρότησης ενός Θεσμού Εξουσίας. Εκκλησία της Κύπρου 1754–1910 [The Process of Establishing an Institution of Power: The Church of Cyprus, 1754–1910]. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cyprus, Nicosia.Google Scholar
  19. Michael, Μ. Ν. (2005). Η Εκκλησία της Κύπρου κατά την Οθωμανική Περίοδο: Η Σταδιακή Συγκρότηση ενός Θεσμού Πολιτικής Εξουσίας [The Church of Cyprus During the Ottoman Period, 1571–1878: Its Gradual Consolidation into a Political Power Institution]. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Center.Google Scholar
  20. Michael, M. N. (2012). Revolts, Demands and Challenge to the Legitimacy of the Ottoman Power: The Three Revolts of 1833 in Cyprus. Archivum Ottomanicum, 29, 127–147.Google Scholar
  21. Michael, M. N. (2013). The Loss of an Ottoman Traditional Order and the Reactions to Changing Ottoman World: A New Interpretation of the 1821 Events in Cyprus. International Review of Turkish Studies, 3(3), 8–36.Google Scholar
  22. Michael, M. N. (2016). Οι Eξεγέρσεις ως Πεδίο Διαπραγμάτευσης της Εξουσίας. Οθωμανική Κύπρος, 1804–1841 [Revolts as a Field of Power Negotiation: Ottoman Cyprus, 1804–1841]. Athens: Alexandreia.Google Scholar
  23. Nevzat, A. (2005). Nationalism Amongst the Turks of Cyprus: The First Wave. Oulu: Oulu University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Pollis, A. (1979). Colonialism and Neo-colonialism. Determinants of Ethnic Conflict in Cyprus. In P. Worsley & P. Kitromilides (Eds.), Small States in the Modern World (pp. 45–79). Nicosia: The New Cyprus Association.Google Scholar
  25. Pollis, A. (1998a). The Role of Foreign Powers in Structuring Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict in Cyprus. In V. Calotychos (Ed.), Cyprus and Its People: Nation, Identity, and Experience in an Unimaginable Community, 1955–1997 (pp. 85–102). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  26. Pollis, A. (1998b). Η Κοινωνική Κατασκευή της Εθνοτικότητας και της Εθνικότητας: Η Περίπτωση της Κύπρου [The Social Construction of Nationality and Ethnicity: The Case of Cyprus]. Σύγχρονα Θέματα [Contemporary Issues], 21(68–70), 25–43.Google Scholar
  27. Skopetea, E. (1988). Τo «Πρότυπο Βασίλειο» και η Μεγάλη Ιδέα: Όψεις του Εθνικού Προβλήματος στην Ελλάδα (1830–1880) [The “Model Kingdom” and the Great Idea: Aspects on the National Question in Greece, 1830–1880]. Athens: Politipo.Google Scholar
  28. Smith, A. D. (1986). The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  29. Sophocleous A. (1995). Συμβολή στην Ιστορία του Κυπριακού Τύπου [Contribution to the History of the Cypriot Press] (Vol. 1–3). Nicosia: Intercollege Press.Google Scholar
  30. Triandafyllidou, A. (1998). National Identity and the ‘Other’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21(4), 593–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Varnava, A. (2009). British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878–1915: The Inconsequential Possession. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Veremis, T. (2003). Από το Εθνικό Κράτος στο Έθνος Δίχως Κράτος: το Πείραμα της Οργάνωσης Κωνσταντινουπόλεως [From the National State to the Non-State Nation: The Experiment of the Organization of Constantinople]. In T. Veremis (Ed.), Εθνική Ταυτότητα και Εθνικισμός στη Νεότερη Ελλάδα [National Identity and Nationalism in Modern Greece] (pp. 27–52). Athens: National Bank of Greece Cultural Foundation.Google Scholar

Secretariat Archive, State Archives, Nicosia

  1. SA03/87, Falk Warren, Commissioner of Limassol to George Richard Greaves, Chief Secretary, 29 July 1879.Google Scholar

Hansard Official Reports of Parliamentary Debates

  1. Hansard (1880, June 1) Cyprus (Orders in Council). 252, cols. 901–902.Google Scholar
  2. Hansard (1895a) Cyprus. Grand in Aid. 31, cols. 683–698.Google Scholar
  3. Hansard (1895b) Cyprus. Grand in Aid. 31, col. 689.Google Scholar
  4. Hansard (1895c) Cyprus. Grand in Aid. 31, cols. 690–691.Google Scholar
  5. Hansard (1895d) Army Estimates 1895–6. 31, cols. 1398–1399.Google Scholar
  6. Hansard (1902a) Civil Service Estimates 1902–3. 108, cols. 619–644.Google Scholar
  7. Hansard (1902b) Civil Service Estimates 1902–3. 108, col. 643.Google Scholar


  1. Alitheia 11/04/1885, 10/04/1886, 13/10/1887, 23/01/1891a, 17/07/1891b, 9/03/1893a, 30/03/1893b, 14/04/1893c, 30/11/1893d, 8/12/1893e, 22/03/1894a, 30/03/1894b, 25/04/1894c, 16/08/1894d, 10/05/1895, 26/06/1896, 2/04/1898, 6/07/1901a, 12/10/1901b, 26/10/1901c, 8/06/1902a, 14/06/1902b, 4/07/1902c, 2/05/1903a, 9/05/1903b, 1/10/1907, 20/03/1908, 30/07/1910, 17/05/1912.Google Scholar
  2. Evagoras 20/08/1894, 1/01/1897, 3/03/1900, 30/06/1901a, 4/10/1901b, 19/10/1901c, 8/05/1903a, 15/05/1903b, 19/06/1903c, 3/07/1903d.Google Scholar
  3. Foni tis Kyprou 10/04/1886, 13/04/1897, 28/09/1901a, 19/10/1901b.Google Scholar
  4. Kypriakos Phylax 9/02/1908a, 22/03/1908b, 30/01/1910a, 12/06/1910b, 14/05/1911a, 04/06/1911b, 19/05/1912.Google Scholar
  5. Neon Ethnos 1/12/1893, 13/07/1894, 3/05/1895a, 10/05/1895b, 13/06/1896a, 20/06/1896b, 4/07/1896c, 1/04/1897a, 4/06/1897b, 21/06/1902.Google Scholar
  6. Neon Kition 3/10/1879a, 15/10/1879b, 14/02/1880.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petros Nikolaou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Turkish and Middle Eastern StudiesUniversity of CyprusNicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations