Advertisement

Encountering Imperialism and Colonialism: The Greek and Turkish Left in Cyprus

  • Nikos Christofis
Chapter

Abstract

The present chapter adopts a comparative perspective and focuses on how the Greek and Turkish Left during the 1950s and 1960s treated the “national” issue of Cyprus. In particular, the chapter points that from the start Cyprus was presented in the party programs and speeches as part of their anti-imperialist and anti-colonial struggle. At the same time, this was done without rejecting the island’s national importance and meaning to the “national centers”, i.e. Greece and Turkey. Furthermore, the chapter will identify whether the theoretical/ideological principles of Marxism coincided with practical matters, especially, when the “nation” is a case in point, both before and after the independence of Cyprus in 1960.

References

  1. Alecou, A. (2015). Communism and Nationalism in Postwar Cyprus, 1945–1955: Politics and Ideologies Under British Rule. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  2. Altay, N. (2005). Nationalism Amongst the Turks of Cyprus: The Frist Wave. Oulou: University of Oulu.Google Scholar
  3. Anagnostopoulou, S. (2004). Turkish Modernization: Islam and Turkish Cypriots in the Mazy Path of Kemalism. Athens: Vivliorama.Google Scholar
  4. Antoniou, A. (2015). Ελληνική Αριστερά και Κυπριακό Ζήτημα στη Δεκαετία του 1950 [The Greek Left and the Cyprus Question during the 1950s]. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Thessaly, Volos.Google Scholar
  5. Avineri, S. (1991). Marxism and Nationalism. Journal of Contemporary History, 26(3/4), 635–657.Google Scholar
  6. Aybar, M. A. (1963). Hurriyet ve Demokrasimizin Temeli Anayasa. Sosyal Adalet, 11, 8–9.Google Scholar
  7. Aybar, M. A. (1967). Kıbrıs’taki Acı Gerçekler. TİP’in Görüşünü Doğruladı. TİP Haberleri, 2, 9.Google Scholar
  8. Aybar, M. A. (1968). Bağımsızlık, Demokrasi, Sosyalizm. Istanbul: Gerçek Yayınevi.Google Scholar
  9. Boran, B. (1967). Antiemperyalist Mücadelede Öncü, İşçi Sınıfın Partisidir. TİP Haberleri, 3, 10.Google Scholar
  10. Boran, B. (1970). Türkiye ve Sosyalizm Sorunlari. Istanbul: Gun Yayinlari.Google Scholar
  11. Bozarslan, H. (2008). Turkey: Postcolonial Discourse in a Non-colonised State. In P. Poddar, R. S. Patke, & L. Jensen (Eds.), A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures: Continental Europe and Its Empires (pp. 423–427). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bournazos, S. (2009). Το Κράτος των Εθνικοφρόνων: Αντι-Κομμουνιστικός Λόγος και Πρακτική [The State of the Ethnikofrones: Anti-communist Discourse and Practice]. In C. Chajiiosif (Ed.), Ιστορία της Ελλάδας του 20ου Αιώνα. Ανασυγκρότηση, Εμφύλιος, Παλινόρθωση, 1945–1952 [History of the Twentieth Century Greece: Reformation, Civil War, Restoration, 1945–1952] (pp. 9–49). Athens: Vivliorama.Google Scholar
  13. Breuilly, J. (1985). Reflections on Nationalism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 15, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carpentier, N. (2017). The Discursive-Material Knot: Cyprus in Conflict and Community Media Participation. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Christofis, N. (2015). From Socialism via Anti-imperialism to Nationalism: EDA-TIP: Socialist Contest Over Cyprus. Ph.D. dissertation, Leiden University, Leiden.Google Scholar
  16. Christofis, N. (2017). Collective and Counter-Memory: The ‘Invention of Resistance’ in the Rhetoric of the Greek and Turkish Left, 1951–71. In L. Karakatsanis & N. Papadogiannis (Eds.), The Politics of Culture in Turkey, Greece & Cyprus: Performing the Left Since the Sixties (pp. 208–227). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Christofis, N. (2018). Politics and Nationalism in Cyprus. In P. James (Ed.), International Relations: Oxford Bibliographies. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Christofis, N. (2019). War, Revolution, and Diplomacy: The October Revolution of 1917 and the Turkish Anatolian Resistance Movement, 1919–1922. In D. Stamatopoulos (Ed.), European Revolutions and the Ottoman Balkans: War, Nationalism and Empire from Napoleon to the Bolsheviks. London and New York: I. B. Tauris (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  19. Coates, D. (2014). America in the Shadow of Empires. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Connor, W. (1984). The National Question in Marxist–Leninist Theory and Strategy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Diamantopoulos, A. (1964). Cyprus in the Centre of Conspiracy. Helliniki Aristera, 13, 3–6.Google Scholar
  22. Dirlik, A. (2004). Spectres of the Third World: Global Modernity and the End of the Three Worlds. Third World Quarterly, 25(1), 131–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ehrenreich, J. H. (1983). Socialism, Nationalism and Capitalist Development. Review of Radical Political Economics, 15(1), 1–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elefantis, A. (2003). Μας Πήραν την Αθήνα… Ξαναδιαβάζοντας Μερικές Πτυχές της Ιστορίας, 1941–1950 [They Took Athens from Us… Rereading Some Aspects of History, 1941–1950]. Athens: Vivliorama.Google Scholar
  25. Go, J. (2013). Patterns of Empire: The British and American Empires, 1688 to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Güvenç, S. Ç. (2008). Solun Merceğinden Dış Politika İkili Anlaşmalardan Kıbrıs’a TİP Deneyimi, 1960–1970. Ankara: Daktylos.Google Scholar
  27. Hale, W. (2000). Turkish Foreign Policy, 1774–2000. London and Portland: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  28. Harris, G. S. (1972). Troubled Alliance: Turkish American Problems in Historical Perspective, 1945–1971. Stanford, CA: Hoover Policy Studies.Google Scholar
  29. Hatzivassiliou, E. (1989). The Suez Crisis, Cyprus and Greek Foreign Policy, 1956: A View from the British Archives. Balkan Studies, 30(1), 107–129.Google Scholar
  30. Hobsbawm, E. (1996). Identity Politics and the Left. New Left Review, I(217), 38–47.Google Scholar
  31. Howe, S. (2002). Empire: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Katiforis, G. (1975). Η Νομοθεσία των Βαρβάρων [The Legislature of the Barbarians: Essays]. Athens: Themelio.Google Scholar
  33. Katsourides, Y. (2014). The History of the Communist Party in Cyprus: Colonialism, Class and the Cypriot Left. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  34. Kıbrıs. (1964). Sosyal Adalet, 17(4), 42–44.Google Scholar
  35. Kızılyürek, N. (2002). Milliyetçilik Kıskacında Kıbrıs. Istanbul: İletişim.Google Scholar
  36. Koçak, C. (2013). Kemalist Nationalism’s Murky Waters. In R. Kastoryano (Ed.), Turkey Between Nationalism and Globalization. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Korkmazhan, A. (2017). Türkiye Solunun Kıbrıs Çımazı, 1950–1980. Nicosia: Self-Publication.Google Scholar
  38. Lamprinou, K. (2017). ΕΔΑ, 1956–1967: Πολιτική και Ιδεολογία [EDA, 1956–1967: Politics and Ideology]. Athens: Polis.Google Scholar
  39. LaMonica, C. (2014). Colonialism. Oxford Bibliographies.  https://doi.org/10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lenin, V. I. (1974). Collected Works (Vol. 22). Moscow: Progress Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. Lenin, V. (2010). Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  42. Motyl, A. (1999). Revolutions, Nations, Empires: Conceptual Limits and Theoretical Possibilities. Columbia: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Munck, R. (1986). The Difficult Dialogue: Marxism and Nationalism. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  44. Nairn, T. (1981). The Break-Up of Britain (2nd ed.). London and New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  45. Nimni, E. (1994). Marxism and Nationalism: Theoretical Origins of a Political Crisis. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  46. Odysseos, Ch. (1964a). Cyprus, USSR and Imperialism. Helliniki Aristera, 14, 79–80.Google Scholar
  47. Odysseos, Ch. (1964b). Cyprus in the Plan of Imperialist Counter-Attack. Helliniki Aristera, 16, 79–88.Google Scholar
  48. Odysseos, Ch. (1965). The Middle Eastern Crisis and Cyprus. Helliniki Aristera, 21–22, 79–89.Google Scholar
  49. Osterhammel, J. (1999). Colonialism (S. Frisch, Trans.). Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener.Google Scholar
  50. Saccarelli, E., & Varadarajan, L. (2015). Imperialism: Past and Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Schwarzmantel, J. (1991). Socialism and the Idea of the Nation. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  52. Stefanidis, I. D. (2007). Stirring the Greek Nation: Political Culture, Irredentism and Anti-Americanism in Post-war Greece, 1945–1967. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  53. Stoler, A. L., McGranahan, C., & Purdue, P. C. (2007). Imperial Formations. Santa Fe, NM: School for Advanced Research Press.Google Scholar
  54. Tilly, C., & Tarrow, S. (2015). Contentious Politics (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. TİP Haberleri. (1967). Kıbrıs İle İlgili İki Bildiri, 2, 14–15.Google Scholar
  56. Trikkas, T. (2009). ΕΔΑ, 1951–1967: Το Νέο Πρόσωπο της Αριστεράς [EDA, 1951–1967: The New Face of the Left]. Athens: Themelio.Google Scholar
  57. Ünsal, A. (2002). Umuttan Yalnızlığa: Türkiye İsçi Partisi (1961–1971). Istanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları.Google Scholar
  58. Ünsal, A. (2003). TIP’in Ulusal Bagımsızlık Anlayısı. In G. Vassaf (Ed.), Mehmet Ali Aybar Sempozyumları, 1997–2002 (pp. 247–252). Istanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yayınları.Google Scholar
  59. Vanaik, A. (2018). Marxism and Nationalism. Online: https://www.versobooks.com/blogs/3578-marxism-and-nationalism.
  60. Young, R. J. C. (2001). Postcolonialism: An Historical Introduction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  61. Zürcher, E. J. (2012). In the Name of the Father, the Teacher, the Hero: The Atatürk Personality Cult in Turkey. In V. Ibrahim & M. Wunsch (Eds.), Political Leadership, Nations and Charisma (pp. 129–142). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar

Primary Sources

  1. EDA Archives (EDAA), ASKI (Contemporary Social History Archives).Google Scholar
  2. Kemal Sülker Papers (KSP), IISG (International Institute of Social History).Google Scholar
  3. Nebil Varuy Papers (NVP), TÜSTAV (Türkiye Sosyal Tarih Araştırma Vakfı).Google Scholar

Printed Primary Sources

  1. CQGP. (1997). Το Κυπριακό στη Βουλή των Ελλήνων [The Cyprus Question in the Greek Parliament] (Vols. a, b, c). Athens: Greek Parliament, Directorate of Scientific Studies.Google Scholar
  2. Salman, T. (2004). TİP Parlamento’da (Vols. a, b, c). Istanbul: TÜSTAV.Google Scholar
  3. EDA. (1953). Πρακτικά της ΕΔΑ [Statutes of EDA]. Athens: EDA.Google Scholar
  4. EDA. (1957). Η Πολιτική της ΕΔΑ. Επίσημα Κείμενα (Αποφάσεις – Ανακοινώσεις – Δηλώσεις – Αγορεύσεις βουλευτών της από 18.6.1956 μέχρι 30.11.1956) [The Policy of the EDA. Official Documents (Decisions—Announcements—Statements—MP Talks from 18.6.1956–30.11.1956)]. Athens: EDA.Google Scholar
  5. EDA. (1959). Το Κυπριακό Πρόβλημα και οι Συμφωνίες Ζυρίχης και Λονδίνου [The Cyprus Question and the London and Zürich Agreements]. Athens: EDA.Google Scholar
  6. EDA. (1961a). Πρόγραμμα της ΕΔΑ [Programme of the EDA]. Athens: EDA.Google Scholar
  7. EDA. (1961b). Πρόγραμμα Πατριωτικής Συνεργασίας [Program of Patriotic Alliance]. Athens: EDA.Google Scholar
  8. TİP. (1964). TİP Programı. Istanbul: Istanbul Maatbası.Google Scholar
  9. TİP. (1966). Türkiye İşçi Partisi II. Büyük Kongresi Alınan Kararlar ve Yapılan Seçimlerin Sonuçları. Istanbul: Istanbul Maatbası.Google Scholar

Newspapers

  1. Avgi 4/12/1956a, 23/12/1956b, 7/03/1957.Google Scholar
  2. Kathimerini 31/10/1956.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikos Christofis
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Turkish Studies and School of History and CivilizationShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations