Introduction: Cypriot Nationalism(s) in Context

  • Nikos Christofis
  • Thekla Kyritsi


In this introductory chapter, Christofis and Kyritsi introduce the reader into the history of nationalism in modern and contemporary Cyprus. The scope of the analysis is a historical approach to nationalism, that is the view that the world of nations, ethnic identity, and national ideology are neither eternal, nor ahistorical or primordial but are rather socially constructed and function within particular historical and social contexts. In this framework, the authors explore how Cyprus—a small Mediterranean island that was and still remains marked by opposed nationalisms, that is, Greek and Turkish—constitutes a fertile ground for examining the history, the dynamics and the dialectics of nationalism.


Cypriot Nationalism Turkish Cypriots Greek Cypriot Cypriot Experience Cyprus Question 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alecou, A. (2016). Communism and Nationalism in Postwar Cyprus, 1945–1955: Politics and Ideologies Under British Rule. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alimi, E. Y., Demetriou, C., & Bosi, L. (2015). The Dynamics of Radicalization: A Relational and Comparative Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altay, Α. (2005). Nationalism Amongst the Turks of Cyprus: Τhe First Wave. Oulu: Oulu University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Altay, N., & Hatay, M. (2009). Politics, Society and the Decline of Islam in Cyprus: From the Ottoman Era to the Twenty-First Century. Middle Eastern Studies, 45(6), 911–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. An, A. C. (1997). Kıbrıs’ta Türkçe Basılmış Kitapları Listesi, 1878–1997. Ankara: K.K.T.C. Milli Eğitim, Kültür, Gençlik ve Spor Bakanlığı Yayınları.Google Scholar
  6. Anagnostopoulou, S. (2015). Millet, Ethnicity, Colonial Community. Views of the Authoritarian Transition to Modernity, 19th–early 20th c. From the Ottoman to the British Empire. In M. N. Michael, T. Anastassiadis, & C. Verdeil (Eds.), Religious Communities and Modern Statehood: The Ottoman and Post-Ottoman World at the Age of Nationalism and Colonialism. Berlin: Klaus-Schwartz, 14–69.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (Rev. ed.). London and New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  8. Aymes, M. (2014). A Provincial History of the Ottoman Empire: Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean in the Nineteenth Century. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Bahcheli, T. (1990). Greek-Turkish Relations Since 1955. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  10. Billig, M. (2008). Banal Nationalism. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Bryant, R. (2004). Imagining the Modern: The Cultures of Nationalism in Cyprus. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  12. Carpentier, N. (2017). The Discursive-Material Knot: Cyprus in Conflict and Community Media Participation. New York: Peter Lang.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Césaire, A. (2000). Discourse on Colonialism (J. Pinkham, Trans.). New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  14. Chatterjee, P. (1993). The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Christofis, N. (2018). Politics and Nationalism in Cyprus. In P. James (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies in International Relations. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Colonial Office. (1881). [C.-4624] Report on the Census of Cyprus, 1881. London.Google Scholar
  17. Connor, W. (1984). The National Question in Marxist-Leninist Theory and Strategy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Dieckhoff, A., & Jaffrelot, C. (Eds.). (2005). Revisiting Nationalism: Theories and Processes. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  19. Drousiotis, M. (1998). ΕΟΚΑ: Η σκοτεινή όψη [EOKA: The Dark Side]. Athens: Stachi.Google Scholar
  20. Eriksen, T. H. (1993). Formal and Informal Nationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 16(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fanon, F. (1963). The Wretched of the Earth (C. Farrington, Trans.). New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  22. Faustmann, H. (1999). Divide and Quit? The History of British Colonial Rule in Cyprus, 1878–1960. Mannheim: Mateo.Google Scholar
  23. Gellner, E. (1983). Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  24. Heywood, A. (2007). Political Ideologies: An Introduction. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  25. Hobsbawm, E. (1990). Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hroch, M. (2012). From National Movement to the Fully-Formed Nation: The Nation-Building Process in Europe. In G. Balakrishnan (Ed.), Mapping the Nation (pp. 78–97). London and New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  27. Hutchinson, J., & Smith, A. D. (Eds.). (1994). Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Karakatsanis, L., & Papadogiannis, N. (Eds.). (2017). The Politics of Culture in Turkey, Greece & Cyprus: Performing the Left Since the Sixties. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Katsiaounis, R. (1996). Labour, Society and Politics in Cyprus During the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre.Google Scholar
  30. Katsourides, Y. (2014). History of the Communist Party in Cyprus: Colonialism, Class and the Cypriot Left. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  31. Kedourie, E. (1960). Nationalism. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  32. Kızılyürek, N. (2002). Milliyetçilik Kıskacında Kıbrıs. Istanbul: İletişim.Google Scholar
  33. Kızılyürek, N. (2005). The Turkish Cypriot Community and Rethinking of Cyprus. In M. S. Michael & A. Tamis (Eds.), Cyprus in the Modern World. Thessaloniki: Vanias.Google Scholar
  34. Krishna, S. (1999). Postcolonial Insecurities: India, Sri Lanka, and the Question of Nationhood. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  35. Kovras, I. (2017). Grassroots Activism and the Evolution of Transitional Justice: The Families of the Disappeared. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Leventis, Y. (2002). Cyprus: The Struggle for Self-Determination in the 1940s: Prelude to Deeper Crisis. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  37. Loizides, N. (2007). Ethnic Nationalism and Adaptation in Cyprus. International Studies Perspectives, 8(2), 172–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Loizos, P. (1981). The Heart Grown Bitter: A Chronicle of Cypriot War Refugees. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Marx, A. (2003). Faith in Nation: Exclusionary Origins of Nationalism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Mavratsas, K. (1998). Όψεις του ελληνικού εθνικισμού στην Κύπρο: Ιδεολογικές αντιπαραθέσεις και η κοινωνική κατασκευή της ελληνοκυπριακής ταυτότητας 1974–1996 [Aspects of Greek Nationalism in Cyprus: Ideological Conflicts and the Social Construction of the Greek Cypriot Identity, 1974–1996]. Athens: Katarti.Google Scholar
  41. Michael, M. (2016). «Διμέτωπος ο αγών»: ΕΟΚΑ και Αριστερά την περίοδο 1955–1959 [“The struggle is on two fronts”: EOKA and the Left during 1955–1959]. Limassol: Heterotopia.Google Scholar
  42. Nimni, E. (1994). Marxism and Nationalism. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  43. Orwell, G. (1953 [1945]). England Your England and Other Essays. London: Secker & Warburg.Google Scholar
  44. Özkırımlı, U. (2002). Türkiye’de Gayriresmi ve Popüler Milliyetçilik. In T. Bora (Ed.), Modern Türkiye’de Siyasi Düşünce: Milliyetçilik (pp. 706–717). İletişim: Istanbul.Google Scholar
  45. Özkırımlı, U. (2010). Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction (2nd ed.). New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  46. Öztan, G. G. (2015). The Struggle for Hegemony Between Turkish Nationalisms in the Neoliberal Era. In İ. Akça, A. Bekmen, & B. A. Özden (Eds.), Turkey Reframed: Constituting Neoliberal Hegemony (pp. 75–91). London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  47. Papadakis, Y. (1999). Enosis and Turkish Expansionism: Real Myths or Mythical Realities? In V. Calotychos (Ed.), Cyprus and Its People: Nation, Identity, and Experience in an Unimaginable Community, 1955–1997. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  48. Papadakis, Y., Peristianis, N., & Welz, G. (Eds.). (2006). Divided Cyprus: Modernity, History, and an Island in Conflict. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Papastavrou, S. (2012). Decolonising the Cypriot Woman: Moving Beyond the Rhetoric of the Cyprus Problem. The Cyprus Review, 24(2), 95–108.Google Scholar
  50. Patrick, R. A. (1976). Political Geography and the Cyprus Conflict: 1963–1971. Department of Geography Publications Series No 4. Ontario: University of Waterloo.Google Scholar
  51. Pollis, A. (1979). Colonialism and Neo-colonialism: Determinants of Ethnic Conflict in Cyprus. In P. Worsley and P. Kitromilides (Eds.), Small States in the Modern World: The Conditions of Survival. Nicosia: New Cyprus Association.Google Scholar
  52. Protopapas, V. (2012). Εκλογικήι στορία της Κύπρου: πολιτευτές, κόμματα και εκλογές στην Αγγλοκρατία, 1878–1960 [Electoral History of Cyprus: Politicians, Parties and Elections During the British Rule, 1878–1960]. Athens: Themelio.Google Scholar
  53. Rappas, A. (2014). Cyprus in the 1930s: British Colonial Rule and the Roots of the Cyprus Conflict. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  54. Sakellaropoulos, S. (2017). Ο Κυπριακός Κοινωνικός Σχηματισμός, 1191–2004 [The Social Formation of Cyprus, 1191–2004]. Athens: Topos.Google Scholar
  55. Smith, A. D. (1991). National Identity. Reno: University of Nevada Press.Google Scholar
  56. Trimikliniotis, N., & Bozkurt, U. (Eds.). (2012). Beyond a Divided Cyprus: A State and Society in Transformation. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  57. Varnava, A. (2009). British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878–1915: The Inconsequential Possession. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Young, R. (2001). Postcolonialism: An Historical Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  59. Yüksek, D., & Carpentier, N. (2018). Participatory Contact Zones and Conflict Transformation: The Participatory Intensities of the Cyprus Friendship Program. Conjunctions: Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation, 5(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikos Christofis
    • 1
  • Thekla Kyritsi
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Turkish Studies and College of History and CivilizationShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Political Science and HistoryPanteion University of Social and Political SciencesAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations